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Mohammed Hassen Ali

pharmacist, lawyer, and Oromo nationalist and political activist in Ethiopia, was mainly responsible for the formation of the Oromo Liberation Front, which in turn transformed Oromo cultural nationalism to political nationalism. He was born in the region of Wallaga. He lost both his parents while very young, and it was his elder brother, the Reverend Gudina Tumsa, who brought him up and provided him with the best education.

While at Haile Selassie I University, Baro Tumsa immersed himself in student politics as well as risky underground Oromo political activities. From 1964 to 1966 he served as secretary and president of the union of the university students in Addis Ababa It was under his leadership that university students were radicalized and energized More than many of his contemporaries Baro Tumsa realized that the Oromo and other conquered people of southern Ethiopia were landless subjects without rights who were exploited economically ...

Article

Kristal Brent Zook

pioneering pharmacist, entrepreneur, and clubwoman, was born near Berryville, Virginia. Her parents, Eliza and Hamp Phillips, were sharecroppers, but the family's lack of financial resources did not stand in the way of their daughter's academic success. Phillips was an outstanding student who won five scholarships at Storer College in Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, where she enrolled at age twelve. After graduation, at age seventeen, she married her classmate Charles Myers, and soon gave birth to a daughter, who died at the age of two.

The couple divorced following the death of their child, and Ella Phillips went to work as a bookkeeper in a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, drugstore. Although some of her friends discouraged her, saying it had never been done by a black woman, she dreamed of attending pharmacy school. She was encouraged by a local physician who befriended her, and in 1916 she ...

Article

Lee Passarella

soldier, was born in New York City. The chief sources of information about his life and career are the official papers of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment and the regimental history, A Brave Black Regiment, written by Luis F. Emilio, a white officer of the regiment in which Vogelsang served from April 1863 until August 1865.

Among those helping with the recruitment effort was Frederick Douglass, whose two sons joined the ranks of the Fifty-fourth, and Francis G. Shaw, a prominent New England abolitionist and father of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the regiment's white commanding officer. The elder Shaw recruited Vogelsang, a druggist and dry goods clerk in Brooklyn, who needed no special pleading to join up. A married man, Vogelsang was forty-seven years old, the oldest soldier in the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, when he was mustered into service on 17 April 1863 ...