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Bruce L. Mouser

trader and matriarch active in Guinea/Conakry, was born to John Frazer at Bangalan Town on the Rio Pongo in Guinea/Conakry. Her father, from Scotland, was associated with Glasgow and Liverpool trading firms along the Windward Coast. He married Phenda, African widow of another trader, at the Isle de Los in 1799. Elizabeth was one of six children (James, Margaret, Elizabeth, Mary Ann, Nancy, and Eleanor). John Frazer maintained residences in both the Pongo and South Carolina, but moved his major center to Charleston in 1807 and then to Florida in 1811 where he died in 1813 Phenda remained behind in the Pongo to manage the Pongo property James and Margaret were sent to England for studies Elizabeth boarded with the Church Missionary Society s mission 1808 1817 in the Pongo and then traveled to Liverpool where she lived for four years in the household of Thomas Powell who ...

Article

Toko  

Jeremy Rich

Very little is available about his early life Some traditions collected by researchers in the twentieth century suggest Toko was a slave or of partial slave descent Whether he was born on the coast of the Gabon Estuary or came from another part of the country Toko managed to become a prominent trader by the early 1840s He belonged to the Agakaza clan of the Mpongwe community that dominated trade on the northern bank of the Gabon Estuary Within Mpongwe society many people of partial or full slave descent could own slaves themselves and act relatively independently of their masters Toko s success in business made him one of the wealthiest Mpongwe men in the entire community Mpongwe merchants held a monopoly on direct access to visiting European Brazilian Cuban and São Tomean ships seeking slaves exotic woods ivory and other natural resources Toko lived near the village of Glass ...