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Carl Moneyhon

John Edward Bush was born a slave in Moscow, Tennessee. In 1862 his master moved him and his mother to Arkansas to keep them from being freed when the Union army moved into western Tennessee. His mother died when Bush was only seven years old. He was educated in the freedmen's and public schools of Little Rock and was considered a good student by his teachers. He paid his school tuition by molding bricks. In 1876 he graduated from high school with honors and was immediately appointed principal of Capital Hill School, a public institution for African Americans in Little Rock. In 1878 he moved to Hot Springs, where he was named to head that city's African American high school.

In 1879 Bush returned to Little Rock, where he married Cora Winfrey, the daughter of a wealthy African American contractor, Solomon Winfrey The couple had four children ...

Article

Carl Moneyhon

businessman and politician, was born a slave in Moscow, Tennessee. Nothing is known about his father. In 1862 his master moved him and his mother, whose name is unknown, to Arkansas to keep them from being freed when the Union army moved into western Tennessee. Bush's mother died when he was seven years old. He was educated in the freedmen's and public schools of Little Rock, Arkansas, and was considered a good student by his teachers. He paid his school tuition by molding bricks. In 1876 he graduated from high school with honors and was immediately appointed principal of Capital Hill School, a public institution for African Americans in Little Rock. In 1878 he moved to Hot Springs, where he was named to head that city's African American high school.

In 1879 Bush returned to Little Rock, where he married Cora Winfrey the daughter of a wealthy contractor Solomon ...

Article

John N. Ingham

businessman and politician, was born a free person of color in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Bernard Cohen and Amelia Bingaman, a free woman of color. Although Cohen's father was Jewish, he was raised as and remained throughout his life a Roman Catholic. His parents died when he was in the fourth grade, whereupon he had to quit school, though he later attended Straight University in New Orleans for several years. As a boy Cohen became a cigar maker and later worked in a saloon. His entrée into the world of politics came during the period of Reconstruction, when he worked as a page in the state legislature, then meeting in New Orleans. There, Cohen became acquainted with several influential black Republicans, among them Oscar J. Dunn, C. C. Antoine, and P. B. S. Pinchback Pinchback founder of and dominant figure in the city ...

Article

Steven J. Niven

teacher, landowner, and businessman, was born to Caroline Cox (sometimes recorded as Caroline Griffin) on the Griffin plantation near Ebenezer, in Holmes County, Mississippi, on the eastern edge of the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta. The name of Wayne's father is unknown, but several accounts suggest that his mother was widowed either shortly before or shortly after her son was born.

From an early age, perhaps as early as three or four, Cox worked in the cotton fields of the Griffith plantation alongside his mother. During the years of Reconstruction he benefited from the establishment of the first state-supported public schools for African American children in Mississippi. Though the school year was only a few weeks long, Cox displayed a precocious talent at the Holmes County School, and by age eleven he had completed all of the courses on offer in the school's rudimentary curriculum. In 1875 he won ...

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Marcus Shepard

lawyer, businessman, civil rights leader, and Chicago alderman, was born in Canton, Mississippi, to Edward Dickerson and Emma Garrett Fielding. Earl Dickerson's maternal grandfather, Benjamin Franklin Garrett, bought his freedom in the 1850s and owned a livery stable as well as several other properties in Canton. His business was destroyed during the Civil War, however, and by the time Earl was born the family lived in relative poverty. Edward Dickerson, who worked away from home as an upholsterer, died when Earl was five and he was raised by his mother, who did laundry for local whites, his paternal half-sister, and his maternal grandmother, who ran a small boarding house in Canton.

In 1906 Dickerson was sent to live with relatives in New Orleans where he attended the preparatory school of New Orleans University Unfortunately family finances forced him to return to Canton ...

Article

Glenn Allen Knoblock

Civil War soldier and Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Austin, Texas, the son of slaves Jack and Emily Holland. Milton had three known brothers, Toby, William, and James, all part of “the third generation of African-Americans born as slaves” on the Holland Family Plantation run by Bird Holland later the Texas secretary of state Arlington National Cemetery Perhaps because of his light complexion and the fact that he was later freed and sent to school in the North Bird Holland may have been the real father of Milton as well as his brothers William and James a fact speculated upon by some historians Bird Holland would later free Milton William and James and send them north to Ohio in the late 1850s Here Milton Holland attended the Albany Manual Labor Academy an educational institution that accepted blacks and women This school was ...

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Stephen L. Harris

civil rights and community activist, business leader, state legislator, and Tuskegee Airman, was born in New York state to Henry Johnson, a World War I hero and recipient of the American Distinguished Service Cross. His maternal grandfather, Herman Phoenix, was in the early 1900s a leader in organizing the Niagara, New York, branch of the NAACP. Johnson himself was thirteen when he joined the NAACP. Although he lived and worked in several cities, he was most connected with Kansas City, Missouri. He earned a bachelor's degree in economics from Cornell University in 1938 and a master's degree in business administration from the University of Chicago in 1940.

Soon after earning his master s degree Johnson was a statistician for the War Production Board During World War II he enlisted and fought with the 332nd Fighter Group known as the Tuskegee Airmen Attaining the ...

Article

Karen Cotton McDaniel

insurance salesperson, member of the Kentucky legislature, and civil rights activist, was born in Millersburg, Kentucky, to Anna Belle Leer, a domestic, and Charles Robert Jones, a white man and a son of the family for whom Leer worked. Mae was never introduced to her biological father, and he never acknowledged her as his child. Jones eventually married and had his own family, and sometimes they visited Mae and her mother. Mae, however, felt rejected by Jones and wanted nothing to do with him or his family. As the daughter of a white man who denied their relationship, Kidd faced discrimination in both the white and the black communities throughout her life.

When Mae was two years old, her mother married James William Taylor the man Mae considered to be her father and whose surname name she was given James Taylor was a tobacco ...

Article

Susan Shepler

Sierra Leone's fourth elected president and a former insurance company boss, was born in Makeni, Bombali District, Northern Sierra Leone, 2 October 1953. His father, Sylvanus Fornah Koroma, commonly known as “Teacher,” was of Loko and Temne ethnicity, and served as a bible teacher at the Wesleyan Church in Makeni for many years. He was a strong supporter of Siaka Probyn Stevens's presidency and of the All People's Congress (APC) political party. His mother, Alice Rosaline Koroma (1932–2012) was ethnically Limba, and spent her career as a primary school teacher in Makeni. Madam Koroma served in the Makeni City Council in the 1960s, also as a member of the All People's Congress (APC).

Koroma attended the Sierra Leone Church Primary School in Makeni, and the Government Secondary School in Magburaka. In 1976 Koroma graduated from Fourah Bay College University of Sierra Leone with a degree ...

Article

Darius Young

U.S. Army lieutenant, businessman, Republican Party leader, and author, was born George Washington Lee to Reverend George and Hattie Lee in a small town in Sunflower County, Mississippi. Lee never knew his father. His parents separated shortly after his birth, and then his father died while Lee was still an infant. His mother single-handedly raised Lee and his older brother, Abner. She initially worked as a sharecropper for room and board. Hattie wanted a better lifestyle for her children, and every day she would hitch her wagon behind a mule and carry Lee and Abner several miles to the nearest county school. Lee remained on the cotton plantation until their landlord forced his family to leave. At that point the family packed their belongings and moved to the thriving town of Indianola, Mississippi.

Indianola was located in the heart of the Mississippi Delta and boasted one ...

Article

Edward C. Halperin

physician, was born in Rosindale, Columbus County (later Bladen County), North Carolina, the son of Israel Moore, a free black farmer, and Eliza (maiden name unknown). Moore's family was of African American, Native American, and European descent and had owned land and farmed in the Columbus County area since the early nineteenth century. He worked on the family farm and attended the local public elementary schools available to African Americans between the harvesting and planting seasons. After completing the eighth grade he attended the Whitin Normal School in Lumberton, North Carolina, and then the normal school in Fayetteville, North Carolina. His schooling was interspersed with periods when he worked on his father's farm and taught in the county school.

In 1885 Moore enrolled in Shaw University, an African American institution located in Raleigh, North Carolina. He entered the university's Leonard Medical School, which had opened in 1882 ...