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Dario A. Euraque

was born in Iriona, Department of Colon, to Nicolás Arriola Martínez and Eulogia García Crisanto. His grandparents were also Garífuna, an important segment of Honduras’s African-descended population. As of 2013, Garífunas represented 2 percent of the Honduran population, which then numbered 8 million.

In the eighteenth century, the Caribbean coast of Honduras had been populated by African descendants who often mixed with Pech and Tolupanes indigenous peoples. This population was complemented by African immigration to the Caribbean in 1797 when British authorities dropped off on the Honduran Caribbean island of Roatan between 2 000 and 4 000 Garífunas a mixture of black Africans and Indians from the island of St Vincent The Spanish authorities transferred the Garífunas to the port of Truxillo located in the Department of Colon next to the Honduran Mosquitia region that borders Nicaragua The Garífunas were deported to Honduras in retaliation for their resistance ...


Esther Aillón Soria

was born on 3 March 1988 in Palos Blancos, in the municipality of Alto Beni, Sud (South) Yungas, department of La Paz, Bolivia. She was the youngest of six siblings born to Angel Barra Sosa, from the Lasa community of Sud Yungas, and Candelaria Barra Pinedo, from the Mururata community of Nor (North) Yungas, also in the department of La Paz. Both are farmers, mostly dedicated to the cultivation of the coca leaf, and because of the itinerant nature of their work, their children were born in different communities and moved frequently for their schooling.

Lorena as she is best known spent first and second grade at the Santa Rosa de Lima School in the gold mining community of Mapiri in the province of Larecaja La Paz and third and fourth grade at the Fe y Alegría Faith and Joy Catholic school in Yucumo department of Beni before settling with ...


Esther Aillón Soria

was born on 9 August 1982 in Cedro Mayo, municipality of Coroico, Nor (North) Yungas, in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. His birthplace is close to the Afro-Bolivian communities of Tocaña and Chijchipa, which is composed of twenty families, a minority of whom are Afro-Bolivians, while the majority are indigenous Aymara Indians.

Omar was the third of six children born to Angel Barra Sosa, from the Lasa community in Sud (South) Yungas in the department of La Paz, and Candelaria Barra Pinedo, from the Mururata community in Nor Yungas. Both are farmers, mostly dedicated to the cultivation of the coca leaf. Because their work as farmers required them to travel extensively, Omar’s siblings—Juan Carlos (1975), Rudy (1978), Abel (1984), Edwin (1986), and Lorena (1988 were born in different locations and the children s schooling was similarly peripatetic Omar attended ...


Alonford James Robinson

George Gordon was born in Jamaica to a black slave and her wealthy white master. His father, Joseph, devoted more time to running his estate and furthering his political career than he did to his colored son. Like most wealthy whites in Jamaica during the 1820s, Joseph Gordon was both a member of Jamaica's exclusive House of Assembly and a custos in Saint Andrew's Parish—the highest administrative official in the local province.

As the illegitimate son of the slave master, George Gordon learned the importance of self-reliance at an early age, even teaching himself how to read and write. Much to his father's surprise, he showed signs of proficiency in accounting at an early age. By age ten he was a skilled bookkeeper, and around this time Joseph Gordon decided to free his son, sending him to live with his godfather, businessman James Daley, in Black River, Jamaica.

With ...


A. L. Dawn French

was born in Soufriere, Saint Lucia, on 19 August 1956, the fifth of twelve children of Jean Haynes Hippolyte and Mary Winifred Hippolyte. In 1968 she entered the Soufriere Community High School, and in 1970 she entered the Soufriere Junior Secondary School, from which she graduated in 1972. In 1973 she proceeded to the Morne Fortune Technical College in Castries (now the Sir Arthur Lewis Community College), where she followed a two-year secretarial course, qualifying as an executive secretary, and obtained her GCE and RSA Certificates.

Armed with her diploma, Hippolyte’s first job was with Nor Consultants. This was followed in 1976 by a secretarial position with Peat Marwick, Mitchell & Co. After two years of secretarial work, she switched to auditing. Over the next five years she gained valuable experience, moving from audit assistant to senior auditor in 1984 That same year Hippolyte qualified as a ...


Lolita Gutiérrez Brockington

and key influence in Mexico’s struggle for independence from Spain. He was born into an impoverished family in Valladolid (today, Morelia in the state of Michoacan, Mexico) to José Manuel Morelos and Juana María Guadalupe Pavón. He was baptized 4 October 1765 as the legitimate son of Spaniards, a fact that has been a source of controversy for over two centuries, with scholars debating his genealogical heritage as Spaniard, Creole, mestizo (part Indian), or casta (racially mixed).

This latter Spanish colonial term fostered multiple connotations and uses from loose innuendo to fairly rigid categorizations to define and officially regulate people of varying degrees of mixed African Indian and European lineages depending on time place socioeconomic political and racial contexts As well the term Spaniard itself was nuanced Many clerics used it to protect their more humble parishioners in good standing from the known harsher legal and ecclesiastic restrictions reserved for ...