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Michele Valerie Ronnick

newspaperman, bookkeeper, novelist and short fiction writer, was born in Sandusky, Ohio. His father, Richard, had come from Kentucky and his mother, Mary Lott Anderson, from Indiana. After attending common schools in Sandusky, he came to Detroit at age sixteen, and in June 1875 graduated from Detroit High School as a member of the school's sixteenth class. Soon after Anderson began working for the Newcomb Endicott department store, one of the most important emporia in Detroit at that time. He rose from a parcel carrier in the 1870s to become a bookkeeper in the 1880s, and according to John M. Henderson in The Christian Recorder (7 November 1895, p. 2), he held “one of the highest and most responsible places.” His wife, Lucy Bowdree Anderson (1857–1961), from Jefferson, Ohio, whom Anderson had married in 1885 was similarly employed She was a bookkeeper ...

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Dario A. Euraque

was born in Iriona, Department of Colon, to Nicolás Arriola Martínez and Eulogia García Crisanto. His grandparents were also Garífuna, an important segment of Honduras’s African-descended population. As of 2013, Garífunas represented 2 percent of the Honduran population, which then numbered 8 million.

In the eighteenth century, the Caribbean coast of Honduras had been populated by African descendants who often mixed with Pech and Tolupanes indigenous peoples. This population was complemented by African immigration to the Caribbean in 1797 when British authorities dropped off on the Honduran Caribbean island of Roatan between 2 000 and 4 000 Garífunas a mixture of black Africans and Indians from the island of St Vincent The Spanish authorities transferred the Garífunas to the port of Truxillo located in the Department of Colon next to the Honduran Mosquitia region that borders Nicaragua The Garífunas were deported to Honduras in retaliation for their resistance ...

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Esther Aillón Soria

was born on 3 March 1988 in Palos Blancos, in the municipality of Alto Beni, Sud (South) Yungas, department of La Paz, Bolivia. She was the youngest of six siblings born to Angel Barra Sosa, from the Lasa community of Sud Yungas, and Candelaria Barra Pinedo, from the Mururata community of Nor (North) Yungas, also in the department of La Paz. Both are farmers, mostly dedicated to the cultivation of the coca leaf, and because of the itinerant nature of their work, their children were born in different communities and moved frequently for their schooling.

Lorena as she is best known spent first and second grade at the Santa Rosa de Lima School in the gold mining community of Mapiri in the province of Larecaja La Paz and third and fourth grade at the Fe y Alegría Faith and Joy Catholic school in Yucumo department of Beni before settling with ...

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Esther Aillón Soria

was born on 9 August 1982 in Cedro Mayo, municipality of Coroico, Nor (North) Yungas, in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. His birthplace is close to the Afro-Bolivian communities of Tocaña and Chijchipa, which is composed of twenty families, a minority of whom are Afro-Bolivians, while the majority are indigenous Aymara Indians.

Omar was the third of six children born to Angel Barra Sosa, from the Lasa community in Sud (South) Yungas in the department of La Paz, and Candelaria Barra Pinedo, from the Mururata community in Nor Yungas. Both are farmers, mostly dedicated to the cultivation of the coca leaf. Because their work as farmers required them to travel extensively, Omar’s siblings—Juan Carlos (1975), Rudy (1978), Abel (1984), Edwin (1986), and Lorena (1988 were born in different locations and the children s schooling was similarly peripatetic Omar attended ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

business leader and educator, born in rural Fallis, Oklahoma territory, to Lester Blayton, a Baptist preacher and Mattie E. Carter, a schoolteacher. Despite having only a fourth‐grade education Mattie Blayton was a schoolteacher who continually underscored the importance of academic achievement. Blayton's father, the mixed‐race, illiterate son of a Creek Indian, was a shaman before becoming a preacher. Blayton attended federally funded elementary and high schools for Native Americans in Meridian, Oklahoma. Later in life he reported that he had been unaware of the poverty of his childhood, though he noted that the only job he had ever hated was when his parents rented him and the family mule out by the day to work in the fields.

With his parents encouragement Blayton attended Langston University working menial jobs to cover his costs His education was interrupted when he volunteered for the U S Army during World War ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

educator and the first African American Certified Public Accountant (CPA), was born in the District of Columbia to John Wesley Cromwell Sr. and Lucy A. McGuinn. His grandfather, Willis H. Cromwell, had purchased his family's freedom from slavery and moved from Virginia to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1851. Cromwell's father was a leader in the African American community, an 1874 graduate of Howard University School of Law, the publisher of the People's Advocate newspaper, one of the first two African American clerks in the federal government, a prolific writer, and a public school teacher and principal in Washington, D.C.

John Jr. absorbed his family's values of education, achievement, and responsibility to the black community. He attended the preparatory high school at Howard University and entered Dartmouth College in 1902 at a time when fewer than a dozen African Americans had graduated from that latter institution. In 1900 ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

certified public accountant (CPA), was born Bernadine Alberta Coles in Charlottesville, Virginia, to Bernard Albert Coles, a dentist, and the former Ruth Wyatt, a teacher. Bernadine and her younger sister enjoyed playing “office” so much that she once asked Santa Claus to bring her paper clips for Christmas. Later her grandfather gave the girls a portable typewriter, further encouraging their interest. Bernadine was the oldest of three daughters (the second of whom, Ruth Coles Harris, became the first African American female CPA in Virginia in 1963 and her father encouraged her to follow in his footsteps and become a dentist But she wasn t interested partly because she did not know any female dentists She also considered becoming a teacher like her mother but believed she lacked the patience required for that field As valedictorian of her class at Jefferson High School in Charlottesville she was awarded ...

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Alonford James Robinson

George Gordon was born in Jamaica to a black slave and her wealthy white master. His father, Joseph, devoted more time to running his estate and furthering his political career than he did to his colored son. Like most wealthy whites in Jamaica during the 1820s, Joseph Gordon was both a member of Jamaica's exclusive House of Assembly and a custos in Saint Andrew's Parish—the highest administrative official in the local province.

As the illegitimate son of the slave master, George Gordon learned the importance of self-reliance at an early age, even teaching himself how to read and write. Much to his father's surprise, he showed signs of proficiency in accounting at an early age. By age ten he was a skilled bookkeeper, and around this time Joseph Gordon decided to free his son, sending him to live with his godfather, businessman James Daley, in Black River, Jamaica.

With ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

the first African American female certified public accountant in Virginia, was born Ruth Hortense Coles in Charlottesville, Virginia, to Bernard Albert Coles, a dentist, and the former Ruth Hortense Wyatt, a teacher. As a child she enjoyed playing “office” with her older sister and she excelled in school, graduating as valedictorian of her class at Jefferson High School when she was only fifteen years old. She entered Virginia State College for Negroes and majored in business administration. Despite graduating again as valedictorian Harris received only one job offer, as a bookkeeper for a meatpacking plant in Cleveland. Her accounting professor, George G. Singleton encouraged her to instead attend New York University for graduate school in accounting In the 1940s African Americans could not attend graduate professional schools in the Commonwealth of Virginia but to avoid lawsuits contending that the state did not provide separate but equal graduate ...

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A. L. Dawn French

was born in Soufriere, Saint Lucia, on 19 August 1956, the fifth of twelve children of Jean Haynes Hippolyte and Mary Winifred Hippolyte. In 1968 she entered the Soufriere Community High School, and in 1970 she entered the Soufriere Junior Secondary School, from which she graduated in 1972. In 1973 she proceeded to the Morne Fortune Technical College in Castries (now the Sir Arthur Lewis Community College), where she followed a two-year secretarial course, qualifying as an executive secretary, and obtained her GCE and RSA Certificates.

Armed with her diploma, Hippolyte’s first job was with Nor Consultants. This was followed in 1976 by a secretarial position with Peat Marwick, Mitchell & Co. After two years of secretarial work, she switched to auditing. Over the next five years she gained valuable experience, moving from audit assistant to senior auditor in 1984 That same year Hippolyte qualified as a ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

founder of the largest African American-owned certified public accounting firm, was born in Jamaica, West Indies, to Joseph Benjamin, a farmer with a third-grade education, and Edith Maud McCourty, a dressmaker. Mitchell grew up in a rural area in the town of Porus, the oldest of seven children and was the first person in his family to go to high school. He attended Kingston Technical High School and then moved to the United States in 1958 with his family settling in the Bronx Mitchell found a job in an ink factory and soon through a black employment agency he found a bookkeeping position for the Teamsters union downtown near city hall He wanted to further his education so he planned to attend the City College of New York CCNY and take engineering courses at night while working His employer however did not want him to leave ...

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Lolita Gutiérrez Brockington

and key influence in Mexico’s struggle for independence from Spain. He was born into an impoverished family in Valladolid (today, Morelia in the state of Michoacan, Mexico) to José Manuel Morelos and Juana María Guadalupe Pavón. He was baptized 4 October 1765 as the legitimate son of Spaniards, a fact that has been a source of controversy for over two centuries, with scholars debating his genealogical heritage as Spaniard, Creole, mestizo (part Indian), or casta (racially mixed).

This latter Spanish colonial term fostered multiple connotations and uses from loose innuendo to fairly rigid categorizations to define and officially regulate people of varying degrees of mixed African Indian and European lineages depending on time place socioeconomic political and racial contexts As well the term Spaniard itself was nuanced Many clerics used it to protect their more humble parishioners in good standing from the known harsher legal and ecclesiastic restrictions reserved for ...

Article

Alexander J. Chenault

businessman, politician, mayor of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina (2005), was born Clarence Ray Nagin in New Orleans's Charity Hospital to Clarence Ray Nagin Sr., who worked as a fabric cutter by day, and a janitor at New Orleans City Hall at night, and Theresa, who worked at the lunch counter in a local New Orleans Kmart store. Clarence Ray Jr. and his two sisters grew up in the historic Seventh Ward section of New Orleans, home to many Creole, Roman Catholic families. He attended O. Perry Walker High School in New Orleans, where he excelled in baseball and basketball. In 1978, after having played on a baseball scholarship, Nagin graduated from Tuskegee University in Alabama with a degree in accounting. In 1982 Nagin married Seletha Smith, with whom he had three children, Jeremy, Jarin, and Tianna.

After short stints with General Motors ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

cofounder and first president of the National Association of Black Accountants, was born in St. Kitts, West Indies, the youngest of four sons of Reginald Ross, a plantation overseer, and Ruby Swanston, a nurse. When he was nine months old, his father died after a short illness. He and his three brothers moved to Yonkers, New York, in 1950 to live with their aunt and uncle, Annette Swanston, a seamstress, and Henry Phipps, a retired carpenter.

Ross s eighth grade guidance counselor tried to steer him into a trade or commercial high school as she did with other black students including his three brothers but Ross was determined to attend the academic high school with his friends who were mostly white Despite his good school record the white counselor refused to approve the academic high school until in desperation Ross told her that the real reason ...

Article

Janine Richardson

engineer, tax expert, and U.S. State Department economic adviser to the Virgin Islands, Ecuador, Haiti, and Brazil, was born in a tent at Crow Creek Ranch, Cheyenne, in the Territory of Wyoming. Smith's mother, Melissa (Boulware) Smith, was the Missouri-born daughter of an African American mother and a Choctaw Indian father. Smith's father, Silas Peter Smith, was of Scottish-Irish parentage and had spent his early life in the trans-Mississippi West where he reputedly served as a scout for General George Armstrong Custer. Nolle pronounced in Choctaw fashion according to his mother Nulle was one of nine children raised principally on Smith owned ranches and dairy farms in the Cheyenne Chugwater and Casper regions of Wyoming Smith s parents had settled in the frontier zone of Wyoming with the hope that their mixed race children would there have a better chance of attaining the ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

first African American female certified public accountant, was born Mary Thelma Morrison in Vicksburg, Mississippi, to William Morrison, a carpenter, and Daisy Morrison (maiden name unknown). Her mother passed away when she was six, and she moved to Chicago to live with her maternal grandparents.

Morrison attended Wendell Phillips High School in Chicago, where she excelled, especially in mathematics. As a young woman, she joined the Douglas National Bank as a bookkeeper. She later moved to Binga State Bank, one of the two largest black-owned banks in the nation. Binga State Bank had been founded by Jesse Binga in 1908, but it failed in 1930 at the outset of the Depression. Morrison worked as the assistant to the cashier and vice president, Arthur Wilson. Wilson was a certified public accountant; when he earned his CPA in 1923 he became only the second African American, after John W ...

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Theresa A. Hammond

founder of business schools at Texas Southern and Howard Universities, was born in Paducah, Kentucky, to Jess Wilson, a Pullman porter, and Rhea (Day) Wilson, a teacher. He graduated from Lincoln High School in Paducah.

After high school Wilson attended the University of Illinois where he majored in mathematics His maternal grandparents lived there and in order to pay in state tuition he registered under their address His father had been laid off by the railroad during the Depression and Wilson needed to cut his costs Early in one of his calculus classes the professor asked to speak with him She told him that although he was one of the top three students in the class he would never have the opportunity to work for the large corporations that would recruit his white classmates She suggested that he switch his major to commerce where perhaps his opportunities would ...