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Geoffrey Roper

Egyptian Muslim theologian, modernist, and reformer, was born in the Gharbiya Province of Lower Egypt, the son of ʿAbduh ibn Hasan Khayr Allah, a peasant farmer, and his wife, who was descended from the Bani ʿAdl clan. He grew up in the village of Mahallat Nasr and received a traditional education, learning the Qurʾan by heart. In 1862 he was sent to the madrasa (Islamic college) in Tanta. There, he perfected his Qurʾan recitation and started to learn Arabic grammar, by the then normal method of memorizing texts and commentaries without explanation from his teachers.

Reacting against this, according to his own account, he ran away from the college and returned to his village, intending to become a peasant rather than a scholar. In this condition he married in 1865 at the age of sixteen But after various vicissitudes he resorted to his great uncle Shaykh Darwish Khadr who ...

Article

Malin Pereira

poet,‐educator, and cultural critic, was born in Harlem, New York, to Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr., a lawyer, political adviser, and business consultant, and Adele (Logan) Alexander, a historian, educator, and writer, and was raised in Washington, D.C. Alexander's childhood was characterized by the privileges of the black professional elite, which included travel, education, and involvement in the ongoing struggle for civil rights. She later described her father as a “race man” who worked to make things better for blacks. He was, according to one of her poems, Hajj Bahiyah “Betty” Shabazz's lawyer. Her mother published on African American history. Alexander's poems and essays about her childhood describe loving parents, a connected extended family, and the creation of an enduring sense of racial affiliation.

Alexander received her BA from Yale in 1984, an MA from Boston University in 1987 and a PhD from the University ...

Article

Jennifer Vaughn

author, educator, and economist, was born Richard Franklin America Jr. in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Richard Franklin America Sr. and Arline America. In 1960 America received a BS in Economics from Pennsylvania State University and in 1965 an MBA from the Graduate School of Business at Harvard University. Afterward, he joined the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California, where he worked for the next four years as a Development Economist in the Urban and Regional Economics Group.

In April 1969 America published “What Do You People Want?” in the Harvard Business Review In it he advocated major federal subsidies to facilitate economic equality and large scale participation of blacks in the corporate world and made suggestions as to how these goals might be accomplished including the transfer of corporations to black shareholders and managers The article offered a radical approach to policy pertaining to reparations and ...

Article

Emad Abdul-Latif

Egyptian social activist and writer, was born in Alexandria on 1 December 1863 to an Ottoman-Kurdish father, who served as an administrator in Kurdistan before working in the Egyptian army, and an Upper Egyptian mother, the daughter of Ahmed Bek Khattab, who belonged to a prestigious family in Egypt. Amin attended Raʾas Al Tin primary school in Alexandria and high school in Cairo, after which he studied at the School of Law and Administration in Cairo and was there granted his BA degree in 1881. Four years later, he received another degree in Law from the University of Montpellier in France. He worked as a lawyer shortly after his graduation and then traveled on a scholarship to France, where he enrolled in the University of Montpellier. In 1885 he completed his four year study in law with distinction upon returning to Egypt he worked in the judiciary He ...

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C. James Trotman

Presbyterian pastor, educator, and social reformer, was born in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, the son of Timothy Anderson and Mary Croog One of fourteen children he was raised in the comforts of a rural middle class home less than thirty miles from historic Gettysburg On a typical day of his youth Matthew faced both the physical demands of farm life and the movement back and forth between two cultures One dominated by commerce and materialism was uncharacteristically open to the Andersons who owned lumber mills and real estate at a time when most black Americans were dehumanized and disenfranchised by chattel slavery The other was a culture defined by close family ties and Presbyterian piety At home Matthew heard Bible stories and dramatic tales of runaway slaves indeed religious piety and the pursuit of racial freedom were dominant themes in his life These early experiences inspired Matthew so ...

Article

John Saillant

of the village of Fifth Company, Trinidad, has often been considered the first Trinidadian to advocate constitutional reform and legislative independence. He spoke for elections for legislators when he testified in 1888 to the British Royal Commission on the franchise. A petition to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, which Andrews signed on behalf of residents of Fifth Company, spurred formation of a commission to investigate local conditions and to consider a franchise. Andrews criticized the lack of British support for modern roads and asserted that if men voted for legislators the government would respond to local imperatives. Trinidad’s Legislative Council, first seated in 1831, consisted of imperial officials and men appointed by the governor; none were elected until 1925 The commission recommended against a franchise Andrews became a hero posthumously as Trinidad moved toward independence He should be understood not only in the context of constitutional ...

Article

Nicole L. Phillip-Dowe

was born Peggy Gibbs on 21 August 1935 in Grenada to Bernard and Kathleen Gibbs. Her father was one of the first West Indians to be appointed to the colonial civil service, and her mother worked as a secretary to senior civil servants in the government of the Windward Islands. Peggy was educated at St. Joseph’s Convent, St. Lucia (1940–1943), and St. Vincent Girl’s High School (1944–1953). Antrobus won an island scholarship to study in the United Kingdom and went on to attain her bachelor’s degree in economics from Bristol University in 1958. This was followed by a professional certificate in social work from Birmingham University in 1962. In 1998 she attained her doctorate in education from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. In 1959 she married Ken Antrobus a native of St Vincent He had won the island scholarship two years before her ...

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Laurie Jacklin

was born in Preston, St. Mary Parish, Jamaica, on 13 February 1941, to Ivan Haye and Gladys Hyatt. Pamela remained in Jamaica with her grandmother during the 1950s when her parents followed the path of many British-Caribbean subjects and migrated to England hoping to improve their lives. In London, Gladys worked in the printing industry and Ivan was employed at the Cabinet Office Briefing Room (Ministry of Defence). After completing school at West Indies College, Pamela joined her parents in 1958 and studied biochemistry in London.

A vacation in 1966 altered the course of Appelt s life as she decided to remain in Montreal Quebec just shortly after the Canadian government ended its White Canada immigration policy which had traditionally excluded most Caribbean born people She accepted a position in medical biochemistry research at McGill University in Montreal and completed a master s degree in public policy at ...

Article

Sharon Ahcar

for the preservation of Afro-Colombian culture, was born Walter Nilson Aterhotúa Castillo on 9 June 1966 in Tumaco, in the department Nariño in the Southwest of Colombia’s Pacific Region. He is the son of Justo Atehortúa and Carolina Castillo. His parents separated when he was 4 years old, so he grew up between two cultures on the Pacific coast, the paisa culture of the department of Antioquia and the tumaqueña of Tumaco, which allowed him to have a unique perspective on life.

As an adolescent he moved to the city of Pasto (capital of Nariño), where he studied dance and theater at the Universidad de Nariño. He graduated from the Universidad Central in the late 1980s with a degree in social communications and journalism, where his thesis “El movimiento social afrocolombiano” (The Social Afro-Colombian Movement) highlighted his early thinking about issues of race.

Atehortúa then returned to Tumaco to work ...

Article

Juanita de Barros

was born on 27 November to a middle-class family. Both of her parents (William Frederick Bailey and Anna Bailey) were trained as teachers and her father was the head of the Jamaica Union of Teachers. Bailey and most of her sisters followed their parents’ example; this was not surprising as teaching was one of the few “respectable” positions available to women of their class. After attending a technical college in Jamaica, Bailey found a position teaching secretarial skills, a job she held from 1919 to 1958 The senior Baileys also inspired their children to devote themselves to civic service For Amy Bailey the political turbulence of the 1930s played an important role in this respect As she noted in an interview with Jamaican writer Erna Brodber many years later they inspired her activism and political engagement Something of this may be seen in her many writings from the 1930s ...

Article

Gerardo Del Guercio

was born Michael Elliot Ball in Plymouth, Indiana, the oldest of five children of Raymond and Beverly Ball. His father worked odd jobs until he ultimately retired as a post office worker; his mother was a domestic and a nurse in senior citizen homes. During Baraka’s early childhood, his family enjoyed a middle class existence on the South Side of Chicago until his parents separated in 1963 Baraka and his siblings moved with their mother to Woodlawn an area known as one of the worst slums on Chicago s South Side After his mother became financially unable to care for her children they were sent to live with their father at Chatham Park an area considered one of Chicago s most desirable middle class neighborhoods Baraka and his siblings began to feel the blows of class discrimination when his father became barely able to make ends meet Baraka wedded ...

Article

Cynthia Neverdon-Morton

Janie Porter Barrett was born in Athens, Georgia, the daughter of Julia Porter. Various biographical accounts indicate that Janie's parents were former slaves, while others speculate that her father was white. Little is known about either parent. During her early childhood, Janie resided in the home of the Skinners, a white family whom her mother served as housekeeper. After her mother's marriage to a railway worker, Janie remained with the Skinners, who encouraged her to further her education.

Though the Skinners suggested that she move North, Janie, at her mother's urging, attended Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) in Virginia, graduating in 1884. While at Hampton, she became convinced that it was her duty as an educated black woman to assiduously work for the betterment of all African Americans. That belief led her to teach in Dawson, Georgia, and at Lucy Craft Laney s Haines Normal and ...

Article

Cynthia Neverdon-Morton

educator, school founder, and social welfare advocate, was born in Athens, Georgia, the daughter of Julia Porter. Various biographical accounts indicate that Barrett's parents were former slaves, while others speculate that her father was white. Little is known about either parent. During her early childhood, Barrett resided in the home of the Skinners, a white family whom her mother served as housekeeper. After her mother's marriage to a railway worker, Barrett remained with the Skinners, who encouraged her to further her education.

Though the Skinners suggested that she move north, Barrett, at her mother's urging, attended Hampton Institute in Virginia, graduating in 1884. While at Hampton she became convinced that it was her duty as an educated black woman to work assiduously for the betterment of all African Americans. That belief led her to teach in Dawson, Georgia, and at Lucy Craft Laney s Haines Normal ...

Article

Patricia Reid-Merritt

social activist and spiritual adviser, was born Willie Taplin in the small rural town of Burton, Texas, the daughter of Nelson Taplin, a Baptist preacher, and Octavia, a Methodist congregant. A member of a large extended family, Barrow fondly recalled an upbringing steeped in strict traditional family values and old-time southern religion. She lived with her parents, six siblings, both sets of grandparents, and a great-grandmother in the family home, and they were sometimes joined by a cousin or two in need of temporary housing. The family lived together, worked together, and went to church together. Although they had limited economic resources, they grew the food that they needed on the family farm, and though she came to understand the family's poverty in later years, Barrow said that she never knew hunger as a child.

Barrow discovered her activist voice and spirit early in life Under the state sponsored ...

Article

Pamela C. Edwards

doctor of ophthalmology, inventor, medical researcher, and advocate for social equity in health care, was born in Harlem, New York, the daughter of Rupert and Gladys Bath. A one-time merchant marine and global traveler, her father emigrated from Trinidad, taking a position as the first black motorman for the New York City subways, and her mother, a descendant of African slaves and Cherokee Indians, Bath tells her biographers, “was a housewife who worked as a domestic after we entered middle school. … She scrubbed floors so I could go to medical school” (Davidson). A brilliant student, Bath attended New York's Charles Evans Hughes High School and in 1959 was selected for a National Science Foundation summer program at Yeshiva University. Working on a cancer research team, Bath demonstrated the future potential of her work in science and medicine and was recognized as one of Mademoiselle magazine s Merit Award ...

Article

Martha I. Pallante

Born to Lyman and Roxana Foote Beecher in Litchfield, Connecticut, Henry Ward Beecher was a member of one of the nation's most visible reform-minded families, and he would come to be acknowledged as one of nineteenth-century America's finest orators.

The ninth of ten children, who included the author Harriet Beecher Stowe and the educator Catherine Beecher, Henry grew up questioning the faith his father passionately espoused. Hoping to inspire his son, Lyman Beecher sent him to the Mount Pleasant Classical Academy in Amherst, Massachusetts, in 1827. There Henry committed to becoming a minister. He attended Amherst College (1830–1834) and Lane Theological Seminary in Ohio (1834–1837). After serving as a the pastor for two Congregational churches in Indiana, at Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis, he was called to the pulpit of the Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, New York, in 1847.

By the time Beecher returned to ...

Article

Richard Pankhurst

Ethiopian patriot from Gojjam who resisted the Italian Fascist occupation, was born in the Borena district of Wello province. His father, Basha Zelleqe Laqew, had been a member of Lij Iyasu Mikael’s bodyguard. His mother, Weyzero Taytu, came from nearby Borena-Sayent. Upon Lij Iyasu’s overthrow in 1916, Zelleqe, with two sons, Belay and Ejjegu, moved to Chaqeta, near Taytu’s birthplace. The family ran into difficulty in 1924, when it came into armed conflict with the local governor. Zelleqe was killed, and subsequently hanged, wherupon Belay, Ejjegu, and several kinsmen fled into the lowlands bordering the Blue Nile, where they became shiftoch, or bandits, bent on revenge.

Belay’s fortune was greatly affected by the Italian invasion. After fifteen years of fighting as a shifta he determined to join the struggle against the external enemy An opportunity came when he learned that an Italian military convoy was traveling ...

Article

Lahcen Ezzaher

Moroccan anticolonialist leader, was born in Rabat. Although he was raised in a family of modest income, he managed to attend a French elementary school for children of notable families at the age of nine. In 1938, he graduated from Moulay Youssef High School in Rabat. He attended Algiers University in Algeria, where he graduated with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics in 1942. He returned to Morocco and taught mathematics at Gouraud High School and then joined the teaching faculty at the Royal College. In La mémoire d’un roi: Entretiens avec Eric Laurent, the late King Hassan II, who was one of Ben Barka’s students, described him as a man with “a vast knowledge, a charming personality, and a passionate nature” (p. 108).

The year 1935 marked the beginning of Ben Barka s involvement in the national movement for independence He was the youngest member of ...

Article

Maurice Jackson

Anthony Benezet was born to Huguenot parents in Saint-Quentin, Picardy, France. His father, Jean-Etienne Benezet, and his mother, Judith, had at least thirteen children, but more than half died at birth. The Protestant Huguenots had experienced a period of relative religious freedom lasting from the promulgation of the Edict of Nantes under Henry IV in 1598 until the revocation of the edict by Louis XIV in 1685, which led to renewed persecution by Catholics. JeanEtienne Benezet belonged to a Protestant group known as the Inspirés de la Vaunage, which descended from the Camisards, who had violently resisted religious persecution in the Cévennes Mountains of southern France. The Benezet family fled France for the Netherlands in 1715, then went to England, and finally settled in Philadelphia in 1731.

In 1735 Anthony Benezet was naturalized as a British subject, and on 13 May 1736 he married Joyce Marriott ...

Article

Lahcen Ezzaher

Moroccan anticolonial leader, was born in a remote, small village in the region of Oujda, a major city on the border with Algeria. He was raised in a low-income family. He attended elementary school and high school in Oujda, where he met Abdelaziz Bouteflika, later the president of Algeria.

When Benjelloun graduated from high school in 1955, he moved to Rabat, the capital city of Morocco, to study at the Scientific Institute. In Rabat he met leading members of the national movement for independence such as Mohamed Elyazghi, who is currently a key figure in the USFP (Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires). At the end of his first year in college, which coincided with the year the country gained its independence from the French Protectorate (1956 Benjelloun who chose to follow a career in the postal service and communication seized an opportunity to get into a two ...