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Pan-Africanist intellectual and doctor, was born on 25 April 1887 in Porto-Novo, Benin. His father, Joseph Tovalum-Quenum, was an extremely powerful trader who had backed the French against Behanzin, the last king of the independent monarchy of Dahomey (present-day Benin). His mother, Maria Thérésa Nadjo, was the granddaughter of the mid-nineteenth century Dahomean king Ghézo. Tovalou-Quenum thus grew up in relative affluence, especially since the colonial government rewarded his father for his service against Behanzin. Like many wealthy southern Beninese families in this period, his family considered themselves Catholics and believers in the indigenous spiritual traditions of vodun at the same time. The death of Tovalou-Quenum’s mother in 1894 seems to have deeply affected the boy s later development as did his primary studies at a Catholic mission school in Porto Novo run by the missionaries known as the White Fathers As an adolescent his family sent Tovalou Quenum ...

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Elvatrice Parker Belsches

physician, author, hospital administrator, civic and organizational leader, and humanitarian, was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, the elder son of Jesse E. Turner, a chef, and Jennie Edwards Turner. The Turner family migrated during Turner's youth to New York City, where he continued his education in the city's public schools. Turner received his preliminary college education in the College of the City of New York and then enrolled in the Leonard Medical School of Shaw University at age seventeen (Cobb, p. 160). Shaw University, a historically black institution in Raleigh, North Carolina, was founded in 1865 by Reverend Henry Tupper under the auspices of the American Baptist Home Mission Society in an effort to educate the freedmen after the Civil War Reverend Tupper was acutely aware that in addition to educating the head heart and hands it was critical to train practitioners ...