first African AmericanPatent Examiner, a lawyer, and author of The Colored Inventor: A Record of Fifty Years (Crisis Publishing Co., 1913) and other works on black inventors and scientists of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, was born in Columbus, Mississippi. Little is known of his parents or his early life in Columbus, except that he attended public schools and the Columbus Union Academy. Toward the end of Reconstruction, in June 1874, he was selected to attend the Annapolis, Maryland, naval academy by white Congressman Henry W. Barry R Mississippi who had commanded black troops for the union Army during the Civil War Despite government and naval policies during this period directing the military to integrate the first two African American cadets failed to survive intense hazing taunting assaults and social isolation from classmates and left before graduation Still Congressman Barry originally from New ...
Janice L. Greene
Born in Mississippi, Earl Burris Dickerson moved as a teenager to Chicago, Illinois, where he attended Evanston Academy, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois, from which he earned a B.A. degree. He served in the United States Army as a low-ranking officer during World War I (1914–1918), then returned to Illinois and took a degree in law from the University of Chicago in 1920. Dickerson was the law school's first African American graduate. The following year he became counsel for a new black-owned insurance company, Liberty Life; he continued his association with the company, later called Supreme Life, for five decades.
Dickerson soon became active in the Democratic Party and was rewarded with an appointment in 1923 as an assistant corporation counsel for Chicago. By 1933 he was an assistant attorney general for Illinois, and in 1939 he became Chicago s first black Democratic ...
Thomas M. Leonard
diplomat, lawyer, and journalist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel Durham and Elizabeth Stephens. Two of his uncles, Clayton Durham and Jeremiah Durham, were noted clergymen who helped Bishop Richard Allen establish the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. Durham, who could almost pass for white, studied in the Philadelphia public schools and graduated from the Institute for Colored Youth in 1876.
For five years after leaving high school Durham taught in Delaware and Pennsylvania. In 1881 he entered Towne Scientific School, a branch of the University of Pennsylvania, from which he earned a bachelor's degree in 1886 and a civil engineering degree in 1888. He held several positions during his college career, including reporter for the Philadelphia Times. He excelled as a newspaperman, and his unique abilities eventually led him to the assistant editorship of the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin ...
Andre D. Vann
lawyer, educator, and first black chief justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court, was born in Ellerbe, North Carolina, the eighth of the twelve children of Walter Frye and Pearl Motley, farmers. In the late 1920s his father sought to ensure financial security for his family by purchasing a forty-six-acre tobacco and cotton farm with the assistance of a loan from a local bank, which made him one of only a handful of blacks who owned land in Ellerbe. Later his father purchased a small sawmill from white owners. Frye attended the segregated Mineral Springs School in Ellerbe and graduated as valedictorian in 1949. In June 1953 he earned a BS in biology with highest honors from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College later North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U S Air Force and served ...
federal judge and educator, was born Earl Ben Gilliam in Clovis, New Mexico, the son of James Earl Gilliam, a small-business owner, and Lula Mae Gooden. Gilliam spent most of his boyhood in Oklahoma City before his family moved to San Diego, California, in 1941. At the end of World War II his father opened the Louisiana Fish Market on Imperial Avenue in the heart of the city's African American community, and while attending San Diego High School—where he was an outstanding tackle on the football team—Gilliam spent many after-school hours assisting the family business. While attending San Diego State College he enjoyed acting in plays and was one of the earliest pledges of the school's first black fraternity, Kappa Alpha Psi. Upon earning his bachelor's degree in Accounting in 1953 Gilliam entered the University of California s Hastings College of Law in San Francisco ...
Baltimore attorney, civic leader, political activist, and champion of legal challenges to racial segregation laws, was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, the son of Susan Cobb Hawkins and Robert Hawkins, a minister. Hawkins graduated in 1885 from the Centenary Biblical Institute (later Morgan College). In March of the same year he married his first wife, Ada McMechen (1867–?) of Virginia, in a Baltimore service led by the Reverend Benjamin Brown, a church activist and pastor of the Sharp Street Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, of which Hawkins was a lifelong member. William and Ada Hawkins had two daughters, Aldina Hawkins (Haynes) (1885–1940) and Roberta Hawkins (West) (1891–?).
Hawkins worked as an educator while studying law at the University of Maryland but he was forced to leave the college when white students petitioned to exclude blacks He graduated from the Howard ...
Elizabeth K. Davenport
attorney and civic leader, was born in Chicago into an African American family of successful lawyers. Her father, C. Francis Stradford, was a prominent attorney on Chicago's South Side and the founder of the National Bar Association (NBA), which he established in 1925. In 1940 C. Francis Stradford successfully argued the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark case Hansberry v. Lee, which abolished the restrictive covenants that had limited racial integration in Chicago neighborhoods. Her grandfather, J. B. Stradford, was a well-known lawyer in the African American community and the owner of the only black hotel in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Her mother, Aida Arrabella Carter Stradford, was an artist and a homemaker.LaFontant's indoctrination to the legal profession occurred early. As a student at Englewood Public High School in Chicago, she spent the summers working in her father's law office. In the autumn of 1939 she ...
Jewel LaFontant-Mankarious expanded the parameters of tokenism to produce tangible effects for women and African Americans. Often the first woman or African American to hold leadership positions in several arenas, LaFontant-Mankarious challenged discrimination as an activist and lawyer and used her legal acumen and negotiating skills to broker deals in corporate America and the world of Republican politics, all while balancing the often difficult responsibilities of career and family.
Born in Chicago, Illinois, to Cornelius Francis and Aida Carter Stradford, Jewel Carter Stradford was the daughter of an attorney father and artist mother who raised their daughter to believe that unlimited possibilities were available to her. Both her grandfather and her father graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio and entered the legal profession. In 1943 Stradford continued the family tradition when she received a BA from Oberlin, and in 1946 she became the first black woman to ...
attorney, Detroit area civic leader, and nominee for the sixth circuit federal court of appeals, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Wade Hampton McCree Jr. and Dores B. McCrary McCree, and grew up in Detroit, Michigan.
Her father served as a Michigan circuit judge for Wayne County, 1954–1961, and as a federal U.S. district judge 1961–1966, and U.S. sixth circuit court of appeals judge from 1966 to 1977, when he was appointed solicitor general of the United States by President Jimmy Carter. He was the first African American to serve on the sixth circuit court, and the second (after Thurgood Marshall) as solicitor general. Kathleen Lewis attended Detroit public schools, graduating from Cass Technical High School in 1965, then entered Fisk University (Jet, 24 Mar. 1966, 39), where Judge McCree was an alumnus and later a ...
Carole Watterson Troxler
slave, entrepreneur, civic leader, and murder victim, probably was born in Alamance County, North Carolina. His mother gave her name as Jemima Phillips; she may have been a member of a free African American family named Phillips who lived in Caswell County, North Carolina, in the early nineteenth century. His father is unknown. Some of Outlaw's contemporaries thought he was the son of Chesley Farrar Faucett, a merchant with agricultural and tanning operations in northern Alamance County who served in the state legislature from 1844 to 1847 and from 1864 to 1865.
The judge and writer Albion Tourgée knew both Outlaw and Faucett and characterized them fictionally in Bricks without Straw (1880 Tourgée depicted Faucett sympathetically as an aged justice of the peace known for kindness as a slaveholder quiet wartime Unionism and cooperation with the Union League during Reconstruction Outlaw ...
political and civic activist, lawyer, and civil rights advocate, was the daughter of Robert A. Pelham, the former editor and publisher of the Washington Tribune, and Gabrielle Lewis Pelham, a pianist and the first honorary member of the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. Her sister was Dorothy Pelham Beckley, the Deltas' second national president. Speaks was a graduate of the prestigious Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C., and the University of Michigan, where she received a bachelor's degree in Science in 1924.
Prior to her marriage in 1926 to Dr. F. Douglas Speaks with whom she had one son she taught in South Carolina and did social work in Washington D C In the late 1920s Speaks assisted her father in organizing the Capital News Service an African American news agency in Washington She worked in journalism for three years before moving ...
civil rights activist and attorney, was born Margaret Berenice Bush in St. Louis, Missouri—as she has been known to point out, before the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment giving women the right to vote. Her father, James T. Bush, a real estate broker, and her mother, Margaret Berenice (Casey) Bush, a committee executive of the St. Louis NAACP in 1920, were both instrumental in shaping young Margaret's views on racism. She attended public schools and graduated from Sumner High School in St. Louis with honors in 1935. She received a BA in Economics and Mathematics, cum laude, from Talladega College in Alabama in 1940. During her senior year she received a Juliette Derricotte fellowship, named after the writer and educator.
In the late 1930s when Margaret Bush was still an undergraduate Missouri did not allow blacks to attend its state supported law schools The state ...