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Ana Raquel Fernandes

Chemist and phosphorus manufacturer, well known for his philanthropic views, born on 3 March 1811 in Charlbury, Oxfordshire, into a Quaker family. He was the son of William Albright and Rachel Tanner. In 1842 he joined the firm of John and Edward Sturge, manufacturing chemists in Birmingham. He was responsible for the development of Anton Schrotter's (1802–75) method of producing red phosphorus, important for the use of safety matches. This interest grew out of a concern for the health of match workers. In 1854 Albright took over a phosphorus plant previously belonging to the Sturge brothers, in Oldbury, Worcestershire. In 1856 he went into partnership with J. W. Wilson. Their firm survived until the middle of the 20th century.

Throughout his life Albright travelled in Europe Egypt and the United States seeking new sources of raw materials and trying to expand his export trade ...


Audra J. Wolfe

chemist and educator, was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the eldest son of Thomas Brady, a tobacco factory laborer, and Celester Brady, both of whom were born free around the time of the Civil War. Brady's father, himself illiterate, made sure that all of his children attended school. St. Elmo Brady graduated from high school with honors before enrolling at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1904. At Fisk, he studied with Thomas W. Talley, who was regarded as one of the best chemistry teachers in the black college system.

After graduating from Fisk in 1908 Brady accepted a teaching position at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He quickly became friends with both Booker T. Washington, the institute's first president and leading advocate, and George Washington Carver the scientist famous for his agricultural research on peanuts soybeans sweet potatoes and pecans Brady was deeply impressed ...


Norbert Rillieux was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, to an African American mother and a French father who was an engineer and a plantation owner. After studying engineering at L'École Centrale in Paris, France, Rillieux became the school's youngest instructor in the department of applied mechanics. At L'École Centrale, he published many papers on steam technology.

Rillieux returned to Louisiana in 1840. In 1843 he patented the multiple effect vacuum pan evaporator This device heated sugar cane juice in a partial vacuum which reduced its boiling point thus allowing a much greater fuel efficiency This innovation widely adopted in the sugar refining industry escalated the rate of production and reduced the price of sugar thus transforming it from a luxury commodity into a household item Similar technology was subsequently developed for the production of soap gelatin and glue Some have called Rillieux s evaporator the greatest invention ...