pioneer black naval officer, was born in Cotton Plant, Arkansas, a predominantly black community, one of twelve children of Tecora and Alexander Arbor. He had two sisters and nine brothers, and his ancestors had received land in the area when slavery ended. Outgoing, humorous, and loquacious by nature, Arbor possessed a typically rural southern sense of place. During an oral history interview in the mid‐1980s, he described Cotton Plant as, “A little place that only me and the Good Lord knows [with a population of] 1,661 up until the day I left, and there's never been that many since.” Like his siblings, Arbor received a private school education. During his years in Arkansas he attended Arkadelphia–Cotton Plant Academy. Around 1930 the family left the farm area and moved to Chicago as part of a northerly migration of blacks seeking employment opportunities Arbor s father worked as a carpenter ...
Robert C. Schwaller
and son of a prominent noble from Valencia, Spain, who later lived in Mexico. Born to Gaspar Rubio de Cardona a caballero (knight) of Valencia and Catalina Martín, a morena (black woman), most of his contemporaries considered Juan Bautista to be a mulatto. Cardona was raised in Valencia in the home of his father before pursuing an active military career and later immigrating to Mexico.
Not much is known about his youth other than it was spent in Valencia with his parents. As an illegitimate—albeit recognized—son of a nobleman, Cardona sought to improve his social position through military service. During the 1560s he served in Spanish military campaigns in the Mediterranean and Iberian Peninsula. In 1564 he served under General don García de Toledo y Osorio on an expedition to recapture the Peñón de Veléz on the Barbary Coast in modern Morocco This strategic promontory would serve as a ...