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Terri L. Norris

academic dean and scientist, was born Carolyn Daphne Branch in Richmond, Virginia, the second of two daughters born to Shirley Marian Booker Branch and Charles Walker Branch, owners of a grocery store. Shirley Branch earlier held a job at an antique store, while Charles Branch's early job was as a truck driver. Shirley later worked for the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles. Carolyn's sister Delores was born in 1942, and both children attended segregated public schools in Richmond, Virginia, where Carolyn graduated from Maggie Walker High School as salutatorian. Branch excelled in academics and was encouraged to pursue a college education. With the aid of her teachers, she sought college scholarships because her supportive parents were unable to afford college tuition. Branch, a first-generation college student, chose Tuskegee University after being offered a choice of six scholarships to attend a historically black college or university (HBCU).

Her freshman ...

Article

Abdelhamid I. Sabra

Egyptian scientist, was known in his lifetime as al-Basri, where he was first in Basra, Iraq, and as al-Misri, since he ended his life in Cairo, having escaped from the “widespread plagues” described in some detail by the Christian physician Ibn Butlan (d. AH 458/1066 CE). Ibn Butlan witnessed the plagues while he traveled to Aleppo, al-Fustat, and al-Qustantiniyya, and he lists Ibn al-Haytham among “the men of science” who fell victim to the plague.

Ibn al-Haytham’s education is known mainly from his extant writings, which luckily are many, most of them original and impressive, with continuous interest in astronomy, and especially a new significant emphasis on the study of light as a clear branch of “physics”: “light,” he noted, in his Optics book 5 does not behave in the way it does for the sake of the eye He was not an atomist but he accepted ...

Article

Allen J. Fromherz

early Moroccan scientist, was born near the Spanish city of Saragossa toward the end of the eleventh century. His full name was Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yayha hin al-Sa’igh al Tujibi al Andalusi al Sarakusti ibn Bajja, and he is known as Avempace in medieval Latin. According to some accounts, Ibn Bajjah’s ancestors were Andalusi or Safardic Jews. Ibn Bajjah’s connection to Africa began in 1110 when the city of Saragossa fell to the Almoravids of the Saharan Desert. As a wazir or minister to various Almoravid governers Ibn Bajjah traveled frequently between North Africa and Al Andalus Muslim Spain Indeed it was the Almoravid capture of al Andalus that united the Sahara North Africa and al Andalus as one political unit He is known primarily for his deeply philosophical works on the nature of the divine and the individual soul works that would became widely popular in translation ...

Article

Allen J. Fromherz

philosopher, scientist, and theologian, was born Abu al Walid Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Rushd. Known in the Medieval Latin West as Averroes, he was one of the most influential commentators on Aristotle and on Plato’s Republic. A philosopher, scientist, and theologian of remarkable ability, Ibn Rushd famously stated that there was no inherent inconsistency between Greek rational thought and Islam. Born in 1120 in Cordoba Ibn Rushd wrote and studied in North Africa as well as in Muslim Spain al Andalus Although his life has often been portrayed as a struggle between rational thought and the tyranny of the African Almohad rulers who reigned in al Andalus Ibn Rushd s thinking was influenced as much by his time in Africa as his time in Spain Popular depictions of Ibn Rushd as an oppressed liberal thinker and as a European stifled by the close mindedness of the ...

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Jeremy Rich

Burundian scientist and educator, was born on 1 January 1958 in the Burundian capital of Bujumbura. Her father was Gaston Kadima Muende Kanumayi (1916–1981), from the Kasai Occidental province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Her mother, Jacqueline Girinka Kibogora (1936– ), was born to a Congolese father, Kibogora Rutera Munzi. Her family moved to Kinshasa, the capital of the DRC, in 1962. Kadima then attended elementary school in Kinshasa and Kananga. Her middle school years were spent at the Catholic girls school Institut Janua Caeli in Kananga. To further her interests in mathematics and science, she transferred to a predominately male Catholic high school, where she concentrated on biology and chemistry. The girls’ school offered little in the way of science education, and her father strongly supported her decision to search out better opportunities. Kadima graduated from high school in 1975 having scored extremely well in ...

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Dalea Bean

was born on a farm in the parish of Portland in Jamaica on 31 December 1904 He was the twelfth of his parents thirteen children Lecky s father a farmer passed on both his knowledge and interest in farming to the young Lecky who took a fastidious interest in livestock After leaving elementary school Lecky received a scholarship to attend the Farm School at Hope Gardens in St Andrew Though the school s focus was mainly crops Lecky was much more interested in animal husbandry This interest in livestock over agricultural crops should have been no surprise as he was well aware of the vulnerability of crops on the island having experienced the destruction of his father s banana crops by various hurricanes In Lecky s estimation livestock seemed to be a safer investment than a singular focus on crops He also had high hopes that increased livestock production ...

Article

Peter D. Fraser

was born on 4 July 1888 in Cocoye Village, Trinidad, to Lewis Albert Maloney, a building contractor, and Estelle Evetta (Bonas) Maloney, a needlepoint teacher.

He studied at Naparima College in Trinidad, which he left with the qualifications to enter British universities. Finances precluded this, however, and he immigrated to the United States in 1909, hoping to study medicine. While at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, he was encouraged to enter the ministry of the Episcopal Church, enrolling in 1910 at the General Theological Seminary in New York. He simultaneously studied philosophy at Columbia University. He became interested in journalism early on and continued to write throughout his life.

On his 23rd birthday, Maloney was ordained, having the distinction of being the youngest minister in the Protestant Episcopal Church. In 1914 he published The Adequate Norm: An Essay on Christian Ethics possibly the first philosophical work by a black ...

Article

Debra A. Varnado

scientist and first black professor and chemistry department head at the U.S. Naval Academy, was one of three sons born in North Little Rock, Arkansas, to Samuel Proctor Massie and Earlee Jacko Massie. His twin brother died soon after birth. Massie was nurtured in an extended family of educators, devout churchgoers, and community and civic leaders. He learned from his father, an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) preacher and biology teacher, to stand up for himself and to minister to others' needs. His maternal grandmother, Josephine Jacko, a full-blooded Choctaw Indian, was born a slave. She instilled in him a sense of right and wrong and during long conversations helped him to recognize his gift for motivating and guiding others. His maternal grandfather, William B. Jacko also a schoolteacher and former superintendent of schools in Jefferson Steps Jefferson County served in the Arkansas State House of Representatives from ...

Article

Lorelai Brilhante Kury

important figure in late colonial Brazil in the growth of scientific and technical activities usually associated with the manipulation of fire, such as casting, distillation, ceramics, and the production of ash for industrial use, was born in Minas Gerais, possibly in 1750. His biographers describe him as mulato, tall, and thin. Manso held jobs in mining, metallurgy, and chemistry. He perfected machinery and procedures for the production of cane brandy, salt, and porcelain. The Rio de Janeiro–born poet Domingos Caldas Barbosa left a handwritten poem in honor of João Manso, preserved among the manuscripts of the University of Coimbra, that praises his activities in the Sociedade Literária do Rio de Janeiro (Literary Society of Rio de Janeiro). Manso never left his native Brazil.

Manso reportedly received the Habit of the Order of Christ His trajectory indicates that reading practices coupled with manual skills and experience had an important ...