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James Jankowski

Egyptian administrator, politician, and prime minister, was a scion of Egypt’s Ottoman-Egyptian aristocracy. His father, Khalil ibn Ibrahim Yakan, was a grandson of the sister of Muhammad ʿAli. From a large landowning family from which he inherited great personal wealth, ʿAdli was raised in affluence; his cosmopolitan education was acquired in German and Jesuit schools in Egypt as well as in Ottoman and French institutions. More Franco-Ottoman than Egyptian in personal manners and comportment, some sources maintain his knowledge of and fluency in Arabic were weak.

ʿAdli had an extensive and distinguished administrative career in the three decades before World War I. Appointed to a post in the Ministry of the Interior in 1880, he became private secretary to Nubar Pasha in 1885 Thereafter he served as deputy governor of Minufiyya and al Minya provinces and as governor of al Minya Fayyum Sharqiyya Daqahliyya and Gharbiyya provinces as ...

Article

James Jankowski

Egyptian lawyer, politician, and prime minister, was born in Alexandria into a family of Circassian background on 14 November 1864. As was the case with many members of the Turko-Circassian elite who dominated Egyptian politics in the nineteenth century, his education was cosmopolitan; the Lazariyya College in Alexandria, the Jesuit Collège St. Joseph in Beirut, the School of Languages in Cairo, finally Aix- en-Provence University in France, where he received his law degree in 1887. First employed in the public prosecutor’s office, Ziwar was appointed to the courts in 1899 and served as advocate-general of the National Tribunals and later as a judge in the National Court of Appeal. He also served as governor of Alexandria.

Ziwar’s political career began in 1917, when he was appointed minister of Waqfs. He served in several Egyptian cabinets over the next decade: minister of education in 1919 minister of ...