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Sholomo B. Levy

rabbi and educator, was born Lawrence Albert McKethan, to West McKethan and Lilly (Blue) McKethan, farmers in Cumberland County, North Carolina. The future rabbi traced his ancestry back to Chattie Blue, a slave who came with the Hodges family from England to North Carolina in the nineteenth century. She obtained her freedom and gave birth to six children, including his fraternal grandmother, Lucy Blue, who was a revered midwife to black and white women in the county. Lucy married a man named Duncan McKethan and gave birth to eight children including one named West. After the death of his first wife, Flora, West married Lilly, a woman of Cherokee ancestry. They had fourteen children, including Levy.

Levy grew up on a small farm with eighteen older siblings and one younger sibling He was a bright adventurous child who taught himself to sing and play the ...


Efraim Barak

Chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1920) and of Egypt (1925–1960). It is customary to add to his name the title of Effendi. He was born on December 23, 1872 in Magnesia (Manisa) near Izmir, in western Turkey, to his father, Behor Yosef Nahum, and his mother, Caden Gracia, who was of the Franco lineage. In his childhood, he travelled with his grandfather to Tiberias in Palestine, where he stayed to learn traditional teachings. After several years he returned to his birth place and completed his secondary school studies in Lycée-Impérial in Izmir. Between 1897–1893, Nahum studied in the Rabbinical Seminary in Paris, and was ordained a Rabbi. This institution was part of a network of religious schools established in Western Europe, geared towards training Rabbis espousing a positive outlook on modernization. His studies were funded by the Alliance Israélite Universelle (in Hebrew: Kol ...