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Article

Carl Moneyhon

John Edward Bush was born a slave in Moscow, Tennessee. In 1862 his master moved him and his mother to Arkansas to keep them from being freed when the Union army moved into western Tennessee. His mother died when Bush was only seven years old. He was educated in the freedmen's and public schools of Little Rock and was considered a good student by his teachers. He paid his school tuition by molding bricks. In 1876 he graduated from high school with honors and was immediately appointed principal of Capital Hill School, a public institution for African Americans in Little Rock. In 1878 he moved to Hot Springs, where he was named to head that city's African American high school.

In 1879 Bush returned to Little Rock, where he married Cora Winfrey, the daughter of a wealthy African American contractor, Solomon Winfrey The couple had four children ...

Article

Tom J. Ward

physician and businessman, was born in New Roads, Louisiana, the second of the seven children of George Frederick and Armantine (maiden name unknown) of Point Coupeé Parish, Louisiana. Frederick received his early education at the plantation school run by the wife of Louis F. Drouillard, the landlord for whom his parents were sharecroppers. In 1890 Frederick left Point Coupeé for New Orleans, where he enrolled at Straight University. He graduated in 1894, then enrolled at the New Orleans Medical College. Because he would not have been able to study in any of the city's hospitals because of his race, Frederick did not complete his medical education in New Orleans; instead, he left for Chicago in 1896 and enrolled at the College of Physicians and Surgeons In Chicago he had the benefit of clinical training at Cook County Hospital Frederick received his MD from the College of ...

Article

Alexa Benson Henderson

Herndon, Alonzo Franklin (26 June 1858–21 July 1927), barber and businessman, was born in Social Circle, Georgia, the son of a white father (name unknown) and a slave mother, Sophenia Herndon. Born on a farm in Walton County, forty miles east of Atlanta, he was a slave for the first seven and a half years of his life and, in his own words, “was very near it for twenty years more.” After emancipation, he worked as a laborer and peddler to help his family eke out a living in the hostile rural environment, where he was able to acquire only a few months of schooling. In 1878, with eleven dollars of savings, Herndon left his birthplace to seek opportunities elsewhere.

Settling in Atlanta in the early 1880s he obtained employment as a journeyman barber and soon purchased his first barbershop Herndon began building a clientele composed of ...

Article

Steven J. Niven

businessman and civic leader, was born in Columbus County, North Carolina, one of ten children of Benjamin McIver Spaulding and Margaret (Moore) Spaulding, who together ran a prosperous farm. The Spauldings were descendants of a tight-knit, self-reliant, and fiercely independent community of free people of color who had settled in southeastern North Carolina in the early nineteenth century. Benjamin Spaulding was also an accomplished blacksmith and furniture maker, and he served as county sheriff during Reconstruction. George White the last African American to represent a Southern district in Congress until the late 1960s was a neighbor Like his nine siblings Charles Spaulding learned the dignity of labor from an early age He recalled in an unpublished autobiography that when not working with their father tending crops the children were to be found helping their mother scrub the floors of their cabin or keeping the farmyard as pristine ...