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Scott A. Miltenberger

James Forten was born into a free black family in Philadelphia. When he was eight he began working alongside his father at a sail loft owned by Robert Bridges. While working with his father, Forten attended the Quaker abolitionist Anthony Benezet's school for free blacks. With the death of his father, Forten, at age ten, ended his formal schooling and worked in a grocery store to support his mother.

When the Revolutionary War broke out, Forten convinced his mother to let him fight. He joined the crew of the American privateer vessel Royal Louis as a powder boy Captured by the British he languished on a prison ship for several months before being released Following the war he spent a year in England and upon returning to Philadelphia worked as a sailmaker s apprentice for Bridges s firm There he invented and perfected gear that made ...

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Randall Morris

was born in Croix-de-Bouquets, Haiti. For most of his life, Liautaud plied his craft to both spiritual and secular ends, catering to a clientele in the town of his birth and its surroundings. As a blacksmith he made spiritual paraphernalia for Vodou ceremonies, such as zen (the iron or clay ritual bowls used in an initiation ceremony). He also forged iron crosses for the graves of Vodou adherents in local cemeteries.

Liautaud completed public school in Port-au-Prince at the Brothers of St. Joseph High School. His first job out of school was for HASCO, the Haitian-American Sugar Company, which would be significant in terms of learning to manipulate the material that would become the focus of his career. There, he repaired the iron rails of trains that transported sugar, molasses, and supplies across Haiti.

In 1947 back home in Croix de Bouquet Liautaud opened a forge behind his house ...