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Valika Smeulders

was born in Paramaribo, Suriname, on 26 August 1846. He was one of ten children born to Johannes Ellis, who was a senior civil servant, and Maria Louisa de Hart. He was born at a time when slavery was still legal in the Dutch colonies, where abolition did not occur until 1863. His paternal grandmother and his maternal great-grandmother were both born in Ghana. They were both enslaved and had children by white men. Several authors, J. J. Vrij (2001) in most detail indicate that Ellis s paternal grandfather must have been Abraham de Veer the governor of Elmina Castle the Dutch trading post De Veer was Dutch born on Curaçao where his father was governor He was a married man and did not officially recognize Johannes Ellis or the other children he fathered out of wedlock but he did take young Johannes with him ...


Ernesto Mercado-Montero

one of the rebel leaders of the Haitian Revolution was most likely born in the Congo or Kongo region of West Central Africa His name may come from the homonymous coffee plantation located between present day Vallières and Mombin Crochu We have no records about Sans Souci s life in Africa but like many other African slaves he was likely a war veteran before arriving in the Caribbean As John Thornton suggests around 70 percent of the slaves listed in the French records during the 1780s and 1790s came directly from Africa Warfare transformed the Lower Guinea Coast and the Congo into two main points of origin for slaves in the late eighteenth century In the 1780s alone slave ships carried some 116 000 war captives from these regions the majority of whom were taken to the French colonies in the Antilles In the Kingdom of Kongo for instance the ...


Mark J. Sammons

Prince Whipple was born in “Amabou, Africa,” probably Anomabu, Ghana, formerly the Gold Coast. The names of his parents are unknown, but mid-nineteenth-century oral tradition suggests that he was born free and maintains that he was sent abroad with a brother (or cousin) Cuff (or Cuffee), but parental plans went awry and the youths were sold into slavery in North America. A collective document Whipple signed with twenty others in 1779 describes their shared experience as being “torn by the cruel hand of violence” from their mothers' “aching bosom,” and “seized, imprisoned and transported” to the United States and deprived of “the nurturing care of [their] bereaved parent” (New Hampshire Gazette, July 15, 1780).

Prince was acquired by William Whipple, and Cuff by William's brother Joseph Whipple, white merchants in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. William Whipple's household also included Windsor Moffatt and other slaves There ...