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Article

Israel Gershoni

the third and last khedive of Egypt, ruled the country from 1892 to 1914. ʿAbbas was the seventh ruler in Mehmet ʿAli’s dynasty, which was established in the early nineteenth century. ʿAbbas came to the throne at the very young age of eighteen in January 1892 after his father, Khedive Tawfiq (r. 1879–1892), died unexpectedly. Born in Cairo ʿAbbas was educated by tutors at the Thudicum in Geneva and later in the Theresianum Military Academy in Vienna.

Unlike his father, a weak ruler who was considered a puppet of the British colonial rule, the young ʿAbbas strove to restore the original khedival status as sovereign ruler, patterned after the model established by his grandfather Ismaʿil (r. 1863–1879 and to assert Egypt s unique status as a semiautonomous province within the Ottoman Empire ʿAbbas s aspirations clashed with British rule particularly with the authority of the powerful agent ...

Article

Zahia Smail Salhi

Algerian emir and anticolonialist leader, was born on 6 September 1808 near Mascara in the west of Algeria. His full name was ʿAbd al-Qadir bin Muhieddine; he is known in the Arab east as ʿAbdel-Kader al-Jazaʾiri and in Algeria as al-Amir ʿAbd El-Kader.

His father, Muhieddine al-Hassani, was a Sufi shaykh who followed the Qadiriyya religious order and claimed to be a Hasani (sharif ) descendent of the Prophet with family ties with the Idrisi dynasty of Morocco. As a young boy, ʿAbdel-Kader trained in horsemanship, and from this he developed his love for horses, about which he wrote some beautiful poetry. He was also trained in religious sciences; he memorized the Qurʾan and read in theology and philology. He was also known as a poet who recited classical poetry and wrote his own poetry, mostly centering on war and chivalry.

In 1825 ʿAbdel Kader set out with ...

Article

Geoffrey Roper

Egyptian Muslim theologian, modernist, and reformer, was born in the Gharbiya Province of Lower Egypt, the son of ʿAbduh ibn Hasan Khayr Allah, a peasant farmer, and his wife, who was descended from the Bani ʿAdl clan. He grew up in the village of Mahallat Nasr and received a traditional education, learning the Qurʾan by heart. In 1862 he was sent to the madrasa (Islamic college) in Tanta. There, he perfected his Qurʾan recitation and started to learn Arabic grammar, by the then normal method of memorizing texts and commentaries without explanation from his teachers.

Reacting against this, according to his own account, he ran away from the college and returned to his village, intending to become a peasant rather than a scholar. In this condition he married in 1865 at the age of sixteen But after various vicissitudes he resorted to his great uncle Shaykh Darwish Khadr who ...

Article

M. W. Daly

British adventurer, explorer, and administrator, was born in London to Samuel Baker, a businessman, and his wife. Educated in England and Germany, and a civil engineer by training, he played a notable role in the history of the Upper Nile in the 1860s. His varied and peripatetic life as a planter, big-game hunter, writer, and controversialist may be studied in his extensive writings and the enormous literature on European travel in Africa.

His work in Africa began in 1861–1865 with explorations in the eastern Sudan, up the White Nile, (where he met James Augustus Grant and John Hanning Speke), and beyond to the Great Lakes. Credit for discovery of the source of the Nile has gone to Grant and Speke; Baker, famously accompanied by his second wife, Florence, explored and named Lake Albert Nyanza. For these adventures, embellished in several books, Baker was much acclaimed, and in 1869 as ...

Article

Leland Conley Barrows

Ever the peripatetic intellectual, teacher, journalist, philosopher, and diplomat, Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832–1912) managed to be both a powerful exponent of the uniqueness of the Negro-African personality and an inveterate Anglophile.

Blyden was born of free parents on St. Thomas Island in the Danish Virgin Islands on 3 August 1832. Although apprenticed to a tailor, he developed a talent for languages, literature, and oratory. Thanks to the influence of John P. Knox an American Presbyterian minister Blyden decided early on to become a Presbyterian minister himself Blyden s perception that his parents were of pure blooded possibly Igbo or Ewe African origin served as one of the roots of his life long commitment to Negro race pride and the development of a racial ideology evocative of Négritude Blyden s encounters with slavery on St Thomas black poverty in Venezuela and his first encounter with virulent racism ...

Article

Bonnie A. Lucero

was born to enslaved parents in 1874. He became a prominent political figure and black activist in the early Cuban republic. Little is known about his early years, but Campos Marquetti participated actively in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain. While at least one source claims that his involvement in the Cuban struggle for independence dates back to the Ten Years’ War (1868–1878), his year of birth in 1874 makes this unlikely. The official record of the Cuban army indicates that he enlisted in the summer of 1898, though he worked closely with prominent independence leaders, including José Martí, prior to his official enlistment. He also helped Juan Gualberto Gómez plan the insurrection in 1895 escaping imprisonment on the Isle of Pines numerous times He was finally sent to the Spanish prison at Ceuta off the coast of North Africa where he escaped before ...

Article

Verene A. Shepherd

The use of the labor of enslaved Africans became a part of the strategic economic thinking of European wealth accumulators in the Americas by the early seventeenth century as soon as it became clear that indigenous and white servant labor were both numerically inadequate to serve the needs of the expanding agricultural economy Having conquered the land resources of the indigenous peoples and with no desire to work this land themselves Europeans turned to the coerced labor of outsiders to extract returns from the land The success of the colonization project depended on the export of agricultural commodities to provide raw material and consumer goods for Europe Sugar rice indigo coffee cotton and tobacco were among the crops that provided planters in the Americas with the exportable agricultural commodities they needed There was no inherent reason why export led growth had to be associated with slavery Smallholders in other parts ...

Article

Bonnie A. Lucero

was born on 25 May 1855 in the town of El Cobre in the Oriente region of Cuba to Librada Sánchez and Francisco Cebreco. He emerged as a prominent figure in the struggle for Cuban independence. Before reaching fifteen years of age, he joined Cuban forces during the Ten Years’ War (1868–1878), alongside at least two of his brothers, Juan Pablo (Pedro) and Juan Bautista. He served under prominent insurgent chiefs, including José Maceo, Antonio Maceo, and Calixto García Iñíguez, ascending to the rank of commandant by 1876. In 1878, like many of his black compatriots, he signed on to the Protest of Baraguá, a demonstration of discontent with the Pact of Zanjón, in which insurgents agreed to lay down weapons without achieving independence or the abolition of slavery.

Cebreco then a lieutenant colonel along with other prominent black officers in the East including the Maceo ...

Article

Ari Nave

Nkologo (John) Chilembwe was born in Sangano, Chiradzulu district, in what is now Malawi. He received primary schooling at a Presbyterian mission school in Blantyre, then in 1892 went to work as a house servant for the British Baptist missionary Joseph Booth, an advocate for African self-rule. In 1897 Chilembwe traveled with Booth to the United States and attended the Virginia Theological College, a black Baptist seminary, where he became familiar with aspects of the African American experience, such as segregation and racism, and was influenced by such writers as W. E. B. Du Bois.

In 1900 Chilembwe returned to his homeland By then an ordained Baptist minister he purchased some forty hectares ninety nine acres of land with the help of African American backers and built the Providence Industrial Mission PIM with the goal of educating and encouraging self confidence among his people A number of African ...

Article

Michael R. Mahoney

first Anglican bishop of Natal, theologian, and political activist, was born in Saint Austell, Cornwall, on 24 January 1814, the eldest of four children of a mineral agent to the Duchy of Cornwall. He began attending Saint John’s College, Cambridge University, in 1832, and in 1836 he graduated as a second wrangler in the mathematical tripos and a second Smith’s prizeman. A year later he was elected a fellow at Saint John’s. In 1839 he took up holy orders in the Church of England but worked as a mathematics tutor at Harrow, where he gained some notoriety as an author of mathematics texts. During this period Colenso also became increasingly active in the Church of England and in 1846 became rector of Forncett Saint Mary Church in Norfolk County. That same year he married Sarah Frances Bunyon, with whom he had five children.

In 1853 at the ...

Article

The European conquest and colonization of the American continent was done with very little knowledge of the new territory's inhabitants or its lands. Partly as a consequence of this and partly due to their roles as colonizers, Europeans imposed their ideas and institutions on the indigenous peoples and the slaves brought from Africa. The colonizers recreated their cultural, legal, and political orders without necessarily taking into account the diversity of the population that came together as a consequence of the colonial process.

Article

Elizabeth Heath

European colonization of Africa followed a long history of contact between the two continents. Ancient Egyptian trade in the Mediterranean predates recorded history, and contact between Europe and other parts of North Africa dates back to the Greco-Roman period. Not until the fifteenth century, however, did the Portuguese establish trading posts on the sub-Saharan African shoreline. Although some early ports, such as Cape Town, became permanent settlements, the majority served as little more than entrepôts for the exchange of African and European goods. Over the next 400 years Europeans acquired slaves, gold, ivory, and later agricultural commodities from coastal traders and rulers, but—with the exception of South Africa and a handful of Portuguese holdings made few attempts to settle or otherwise control the interior By the second half of the nineteenth century however rapidly industrializing European economies needed reliable access to natural resources new markets for their manufactured ...

Article

Cajetan Nnaocha

educator, linguist, and first African Anglican bishop in Nigeria, was born in about 1809 at Oshogun, Yorubaland, in today’s Iseyin Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

Crowther was captured in 1821 at the age of thirteen and sold into slavery when Oshogun was raided by Fulani and Oyo Muslims. Crowther, along with other enslaved persons, was marched away to Iseyin, where he was exchanged for English wine and tobacco and handed over to Portuguese merchants engaged in the transatlantic slave trade and put on board the Experanza Feliz, bound for the New World. Fortunately, the ship was intercepted and boarded by British naval patrol ship, the Myrmidon and everyone onboard was rescued The Portuguese ship was then taken by its British captors to Sierra Leone and Crowther and the other slaves were released by them and put ashore When they arrived in Freetown rather than being treated ...

Article

Amos J. Beyan

Crummell was born March 1819, the son of Charity Hicks, a freeborn African American woman and a resident of Long Island, New York, and Boston Crummell, an emancipated African from the Temne ethnic group of what became known as Sierra Leone in West Africa. Although the conditions under which he became emancipated have not been documented, it has been maintained that Crummell’s father gained his freedom by escaping his owner when he became an adult in New York. The family thereafter established a small oyster store in the black section of New York. Despite the fact that they had limited means and lacked formal education, Crummell’s parents decided to enroll him in the Mulberry Street School and further employed qualified individuals to tutor him.

Following his basic education Crummell together with his black colleagues Thomas Sidney and Henry Highland Garnet went to Canaan New Hampshire to study at Noyes ...

Article

Gerald Horne

American social scientist, author, educator, civil rights leader, and Pan-Africanist, was born William Edward Burghardt Du Bois on 23 February 1868 to Alfred Du Bois and Mary Silvina Burghardt Du Bois, in the predominantly white hamlet of Great Barrington, Massachusetts. William’s maternal great-great-grandfather, Tom Burghardt, born in West Africa in the early 1730s, was captured and brought to America by Dutch slavers. Du Bois would later recall hearing in his childhood a West African song that was perhaps of Senegambian Wolof origin.

Du Bois had a fondness for his New England birthplace and by his own account had a relatively charmed childhood An only child abandoned by his father whom he did not remember his doting mother and relatives and supportive teachers muted the pangs of racism sharpened by Reconstruction These heady years permeated the nation not just the South Hence his early years were shaped by genteel poverty Victorian ...

Article

Valika Smeulders

was born in Paramaribo, Suriname, on 26 August 1846. He was one of ten children born to Johannes Ellis, who was a senior civil servant, and Maria Louisa de Hart. He was born at a time when slavery was still legal in the Dutch colonies, where abolition did not occur until 1863. His paternal grandmother and his maternal great-grandmother were both born in Ghana. They were both enslaved and had children by white men. Several authors, J. J. Vrij (2001) in most detail indicate that Ellis s paternal grandfather must have been Abraham de Veer the governor of Elmina Castle the Dutch trading post De Veer was Dutch born on Curaçao where his father was governor He was a married man and did not officially recognize Johannes Ellis or the other children he fathered out of wedlock but he did take young Johannes with him ...

Article

Building on the work of earlier explorers, European explorers of Africa after 1800 provided information used by European powers to carry out their colonization of the continent. By crisscrossing the vast continent’s interior, nineteenth-century explorers, many of them Christian missionaries, contributed far more to Western knowledge of Africa and its peoples than earlier explorers had. These Europeans discovered that beyond the African coast lay a continent much more hospitable than their legends and myths of the “dark continent” had suggested. European exploration of Africa during the nineteenth century had three main goals: the elimination of the slave trade, the imposition of “legitimate” commerce, and the spread of Christianity among Africans. This new phase of exploration began at the end of the eighteenth century. The Association for the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa—founded in 1788 by a small group of wealthy Englishmen and popularly called the African Association ...

Article

Daryle Williams

was born in Rio de Janeiro. Monteiro was known for his voracious reading, a strong interest in color and technique, and a wide range of subjects including history and genre paintings as well as landscapes. Although Firmino Monteiro’s style maintained many conventions of the Brazilian academic tradition, his early embrace of painting en plein air produced a fresh, sometimes sentimental palette for landscapes and seascapes captured in the moment.

Little has been written about Firmino Monteiro’s private life or temperament. Death notices from 1888 indicate an unnamed wife and children. A posthumous lithograph portrait by Angelo Agostini (1843–1910 an Italian illustrator well known for his abolitionist sympathies depicted a solitary confident man of color in three quarter profile Arms crossed at his chest and sporting a mustache the artist wears a suit and tie To the sitter s right rests a palette and brush To his left through ...

Article

During the 1800s, the Garinagu established villages in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua after being forcibly removed from the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent. Since the 1960s a considerable number of Garinagu have relocated to the United States cities of New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. Precise population figures for the Garinagu are difficult to ascertain. Estimates vary widely due to the mobility of the population within Central America, driven by demand for labor and the fact that U.S. census data categorize them as black or Hispanic rather than as Garinagu. According to low estimates, in the 1990s around 100,000 Garinagu lived in Honduras; 16,000 in Belize; 6,000 in Guatemala; 3,000 in Nicaragua; and 100,000 in the United States. Estimates for the total population, including children born in the United States, range from 300,000 to 500,000.

The Garinagu have a distinct language called Garifuna ...

Article

Lisa Aronson and Martha Anderson

professional photographer, was born in Bonny, Nigeria, in 1873 the son of a successful Ibani Ijo palm oil trader named Chief Sunju Dublin Green who worked closely with expatriate traders and missionaries These relationships may have greatly benefited his son s career The imported obelisk style tombstone that marks Green s grave in his hometown of Bonny identifies him as a professional artist photographer His only known self portrait shows him at the age of twenty one dressed in a respectable Western style suit vest and necktie with a boutonniere in his lapel Green attended the Church Missionary Society CMS High School in Bonny and it may have been Sierra Leonians affiliated with the CMS who taught him photography He served as the primary photographer for the British as well as his own people between the early 1890s and his untimely death at the age of thirty two Although ...