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Article

David L. Weeks

military leader, enslaved and later repatriated to Africa, was born in Timbuktu, the son of Ibrahima Sori (d. c.1788), a West African Fulbe king (also called Fulah, Fulani, Peuls), and one of his four wives. ʿAbd al-Rahman's grandfather, a Moor (a North African Muslim), had been king of Timbuktu.

As the son of an almami (Muslim theocratic ruler), ʿAbd al-Rahman was surrounded by wealth and power. He was raised in Futa Jallon, the lush highlands of modern Guinea, in the city of Timbo. After learning to read, write, and recite the Qur’an, Ibrahima went to Jenne and Timbuktu to study with Islamic clerics. At age seventeen, he joined his father's army. His military prowess soon resulted in significant leadership positions. In 1786 Ibrahima married and had a son (al-Husayn).

Fulbe tribesmen traded with Europeans along the African coast 150 miles 240 kilometers away Taking wares ...

Article

José Antonio Fernández Molina

was born in Sonsonate, currently located in El Salvador. Nothing is known of his early years, but his later actions and writings show that, despite his ethnic category of mulato, he acquired a cultural capital in writing, law, history, the Bible, and the symbolic figures common in Baroque Spanish literature. Abendaño was recognized as mulato letrado, a highly literate mulatto, at a time when literacy was rare among the African-descended population of Spanish America.

Although he had married Lucia Badillo, also from Sonsonate, by 1765 he already lived in Costa Rica He showed his knowledge of basic law regarding maritime trade in a trial related to a ship s contract This expertise probably came from earlier practice because Acajutla the main port on the Central American Pacific coast was an annex to his birthplace As a literate mulatto he became secretary for Juan José de la Madriz ...

Article

M. W. Daly

Turco-Egyptian soldier and administrator, served in the Sudan as governor during the 1820s–1830s and adopted policies that largely set the course for the entire colonial period. Following Muhammad ʿAli’s conquest of Sinnar and Kordofan in 1820–1821, Egypt’s African empire expanded gradually over a period of sixty years. The exploitive motives of that expansion, and failure ever to extract the quantities of gold, ivory, and slaves that comprised its principal object, were reflected in attempts to administer the territories. The appointment of ʿAli Khurshid was a watershed in this process. His long period of loyal service was marked by pragmatism, a liberal and enlightened outlook, and energetic interest in developing the country.

In 1826 following military service in Greece ʿAli Khurshid was named governor of Sinnar a much larger territory of uncertain southern and eastern borders than the future province of the same name Much of the northern Sudan ...

Article

Charlton W. Yingling

military and political figure on the island of Hispaniola in the early nineteenth century, identified himself as being from northern French Saint-Domingue. Despite his importance, little is known about his life, especially his early years. Because of his surname, scholars have conjectured that he was originally Muslim. He was likely enslaved in the northern part of the French colony of Saint-Domingue on the western part of the island until the outbreak of the 1791 slave insurrection that began the Haitian Revolution, after which he rebelled and joined other black troops fighting for Spain against the French Republic. Further complicating the issue are court documents in which he identified himself as ‘Paul’ and claimed he was from Saint Domingue not brought there in captivity from West Africa Regardless of his origins it is known that he accelerated through the ranks becoming a captain under Georges Biassou a leading black general ...

Article

Caroline M. Brown

aviation mechanic and pilot, was born in Quitman, Wood County, Texas, the youngest of three children; both of his parents were teachers. Allen's father died when Thomas was three months old. His mother, Polly, continued to teach school and to run the family farm.

Allen became interested in flying in 1918, when an airplane made a forced landing in a pasture. The pilots paid the two young Allen brothers to guard the plane overnight so that its fabric and glue would not be eaten by cows. From this experience, Thomas Allen decided to become either an aviator or a mechanic.

In 1919 when Allen was twelve the family moved to Oklahoma City where his mother resumed teaching school Allen often bicycled to a nearby airfield In his teens he persuaded the field owner to take a $100 saxophone as partial trade for flying lessons He worked off the ...

Article

Glenn Allen Knoblock

sailor, was one of eight African American seamen to earn the Medal of Honor during the Civil War. Likely in his early twenties when he enlisted as a landsman (for which he was tasked with the simplest sail-handling and duties like manning the yardarm) in the Union navy from Pennsylvania, Anderson was probably born a free black and, because he was rated a landsman, had little or no prior seafaring experience.

Though few details of Aaron Anderson's military service are known, and virtually nothing of his private life, his exemplary service nonetheless serves to highlight the importance of the African American contribution to the Union navy in what was, up to that time, the nation's bloodiest war. Along with such men as Joachim Pease, Robert Smalls, and John Lawson, Aaron Anderson was one of approximately eighteen thousand African Americans eleven of them women to serve ...

Article

Glenn Allen Knoblock

Civil War soldier and Medal of Honor winner, was born in Mexico, Oswego County, New York. Unrecorded in the 1850 federal census, the names of Anderson's parents are confirmed to be unknown. However, likely candidates are Samuel and Mary Anderson, the only black or “mulatto” family recorded living in Oswego County in the 1840 (town of Granby) and 1850 (town of West Oswego) censuses. Samuel Anderson was a native of Bermuda, and his wife, Mary, was a New York native. Bruce Anderson does appear in the 1860 census, listed as a fourteen-year-old “mulatto” residing in Johnstown, New York, on the farm of Henry Adams and his daughter Margaret; he was likely a simple laborer. How he came to live with the Adams family is unknown, but Anderson would remain a resident in the area—except during the time of his Civil War service—for the remainder of his life.

While some ...

Article

Zachary Margolis

was born a slave in Connecticut, according to his military records. Andrew's birth year is unclear; his military records state that he was born in 1750, but his death records indicate a birth year of 1743. Nothing is known about his parents or early years.

Andrew was enslaved in Wethersfield, Connecticut until 20 May 1777. He was then released by John Wright and Luke Fortune, on the condition that he serve in the Continental Army; he served during the Revolutionary War, in the Connecticut Line as a corporal in the company of Francis Bernard (1740–1828) in the 18th Connecticut Regiment, fighting in and around New York City.

After three years of service Andrew was discharged from the army in 1780. On 1 June 1780 he received a total of £11 0 1 ¾ for his service On note number 652 issued to Andrew ...

Article

Charles Rosenberg

a Civil War soldier and veterans leader and Reconstruction-era legislator, was born and lived all of his life in Louisiana. Felix Antoine was born into the distinct community of gens de couleur libre, free persons of color, which existed in the New Orleans area and some other parts of Louisiana since French colonial times. His father was a veteran of the War of 1812, who fought under General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, and his mother was a native of the West Indies. His paternal grandmother was reputed to have been the daughter of an African prince, who purchased her freedom from slavery; she saved $150,000 as a free woman (Shreveport Journal obituary of C.C. Antoine, 14 Sept. 1921). Antoine was the younger brother of Louisiana Lt. Governor Caesar C. Antoine who moved from New Orleans to Shreveport prior to ...

Article

of an islandwide slave revolt and anticolonial conspiracy, was probably born in Havana, Cuba. Little is known of his early life, but Aponte learned to read and was a gifted carpenter, a trade by which he earned a living. He was also a member of the free colored militia, a Spanish colonial institution created to supplement low numbers of white soldiers in the protection against piracy and coastal raids. Free colored militias provided men of African descent with an opportunity to develop a sense of solidarity along ethnoracial lines and gain social capital, perhaps even prestige. They therefore often came under suspicion from colonial and imperial officials. Aponte participated in a cabildo de nación (African ethnic association) called Shangó Teddún in Havana and was a devotee of the confraternity of the Virgin of Los Remedios. Many free and freed Afro-Cubans joined mutual aid organizations such as cabildos de nación ...

Article

Alan K. Lamm

Civil War army chaplain and Baptist minister, was born in North Branford, near New Haven, Connecticut, to Ruel and Jereusha Asher. His paternal grandfather had been captured in the Guinea region of Africa at the age of four and was brought to America as a slave. Young Jeremiah grew up hearing fascinating tales of his grandfather's life, which included military service during the American Revolutionary War. Those stories would later inspire Asher in his own life.

Asher's father was a shoemaker who married a Native American woman from Hartford, Connecticut. Jeremiah grew up as a member of the only African American family in North Branford and was permitted to attend school along with white children. At the age of twelve he left school to help out his family financially, and over the next several years he worked as a farmhand, servant, and coachman. In 1833 he married Abigail Stewart ...

Article

Benjamin Van Dine

Civil War solider, was born in New York State in 1833. His parents are unknown. Little is known about his early life, but he worked as a sailor until he enlisted in the Union army in Philadelphia on 13 June 1863, just a few weeks after the War Department established the US Bureau of Colored Troops. At the time he was thirty years old and married to his Pennsylvania-born wife, Matilda. Banta enlisted under the name Perry Bandy—likely a typographical error—in the Twenty-fourth Regiment, United States Colored Infantry, commanded by Captain M. Yardley. Initiated as a private in 1863 he undertook the role of waterman During his first deployment his regiment was stationed at Camp William Penn in Cheltenham Pennsylvania Over the course of the war this fort trained eleven thousand former slaves and free African Americans to be soldiers During that time Banta s regiment ...

Article

Jane G. Landers

free barber and captain of the Battalion of Loyal Blacks of Havana, recruited and equipped at his own cost a black battalion to defend the Cuban city against Britain’s surprise attack in 1762. The men of his unit fought under a flag bearing the motto “Victory or Death.” During the American Revolution, Barba and other black troops again fought the British in New Orleans and Pensacola, in The Bahamas, and on Atlantic corsair expeditions.

In 1786 Barba married the wealthy María Isabel Aróstegui who brought a 6 000 peso dowry to the union and they made their home in the Guadalupe neighborhood outside the walled city They had two children and were able to give their daughter María Tranquilina a large dowry when she married Captain Manuel Salazar a member of Barba s battalion Barba s son José Silverio Guadalupe Barba was a carpenter and sublieutenant of the ...

Article

Mariana Isabel Lorenzetti

was born in Kalibali (Angola). According to the historian Julián Caceres Freyre (1984), Barbarín was brought in Buenos Aires as a slave at the end of the eighteenth century. In Argentina he married Simona Sarrete, with whom he had seven children. Alongside other enslaved men, Barbarín participated in the defense of the city during the so-called “English Invasions” (1806–1807) carried out by the British Empire in the territory of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata, then under Spanish colonial rule. The scholar Carmen Bernand (2010) observes that after the victorious defense of the city the cabildo local government rewarded the slaves by liberating the wounded granting them an annual pension of six pesos and carrying out an emancipation lottery among the rest of the slaves It is estimated that more than 1 000 enslaved men participated in the defense of the ...

Article

María de Lourdes Ghidoli

who achieved the rank of colonel in the Unitarian militia, a political faction in Argentina. In the nineteenth century, he was one of the best-remembered soldiers of African descent, and his life transcended the boundaries of his community. He was born on 23 December in the city of Mendoza. His parents were African slaves, and he himself was a slave of Cristóbal Barcala, a native of Granada (Spain), whose last name he was given, as was the custom. He married Petrona Videla, with whom he had at least three children: Eusebio Toribio, Raymunda de la Concepción, and Ana del Corazón de Jesús. He was also the father of a son born out of wedlock, Celestino Barcala, who was a soldier like Lorenzo and fought the federals in the 1860s.

It is not known when and how Lorenzo Barcala got his liberty Some biographies indicate that General José de San Martín ...

Article

Known as “the Black Caballero” for the leading role he played in the Viceroyalty of la Plata's war of independence from Spain. Barcala was named colonel for his leadership. Born a slave in Mendoza, Argentina, Barcala was freed in 1813.

See also Uruguay.

Article

Glenn Allen Knoblock

Civil War soldier and Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Saint Mary's County, Maryland. He was likely enslaved for most or perhaps all of his life prior to his military service. The 1860 Federal Census Slave Schedules for Saint Mary's County indicate that one J. A. Barnes owned eight slaves aged four to thirty, one of them a fourteen-year-old boy who was probably William Henry Barnes. How he came to join the Union Army is unknown; Barnes may have been freed prior to the war, or he may have run away from his master to seek military service. Whatever the circumstance, Barnes enlisted in the 38th U.S. Colored Troops (USCT) regiment at Norfolk, Virginia, on 11 February 1864, stating his age as twenty-three and his occupation as that of a farmer.

The 38th USCT spent its first months after its formation stationed in the area of Norfolk ...

Article

Eric Paul Roorda

a military leader in colonial Santo Domingo, allied with France to oppose two incursions by forces of the incipient Republic of Haiti, in 1802 and 1805. Viewed through the lens of pan-African solidarity discourses, which came much later, Barón has become a conflicted figure in the colonial history of what came to be the Dominican Republic, in that he was a free man of color who fought against Toussaint Louverture (who abolished slavery), and for Napoleon Bonaparte (who reinstated it). His date and place of birth are unknown, as are the circumstances of his early life, but it is certain that he reached the rank of colonel and was in command of the Spanish garrison in Santo Domingo by 1801.

In January 1801 Toussaint Louverture leader of the ongoing Haitian Revolution in the neighboring French colony of Saint Domingue entered the Spanish colony with his army fulfilling ...

Article

Mariana Isabel Lorenzetti

born in Africa at the end of the eighteenth century. In 1806 and 1807 he fought in defense of Buenos Aires during the “English Invasions,” under the command of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón and Santiago de Liniers. With these military invasions, the British Crown hoped to seize control of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata from the Spanish (Martino and Vega, 2006).

According to Vicente Gesualdo (1982) at the beginning of the nineteenth century the enrollment of the enslaved population in the military challenged the common stereotypes of blacks as unfit soldiers and leaders White officers believed that black soldiers were useful only for menial tasks and they resented providing a marginalized group with weapons fearing that it could potentially lead to a rebellion The various battles in which Batallón participated helped to undermine these prejudices Moreover Batallón continued his involvement in ...

Article

Jeffery Lewis Stanley

also spelled Beauvais, a free man of color from the French colony of Saint-Domingue who served as a military commander in the French Republican Army during the Haitian Revolution, was most likely born on 17 June 1756 in the colonial city of Port-au-Prince. Bauvais was a leader of the revolt of free people of color (gens de couleur) against the white supremacy of French colonialism in Saint-Domingue during the early 1790s. Into the late 1790s, Bauvais remained loyal to the French Republic, even in the face of British and Spanish incursions.

Bauvais received his education in France at the Collège de la Flèche. Prior to the French and Haitian Revolutions, Bauvais served with the chasseurs volontaires from Saint Domingue who fought in the battle of Savannah during the American War of Independence under the leadership of the Comte d Estaing a former governor general of the colony ...