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The triangular shipping route of the slave trade largely formed the banking industry in England. British goods such as textiles, arms, and iron were exchanged for slaves in Africa, which were then transported to the West Indies and traded for sugar, tobacco, cotton, spices, and rum. The triangular trade was a system of immense earnings, as every ship sailed with a profitable cargo. The wealth generated by the triangular trade brought increased affluence to the planters who cultivated the West Indian produce, the merchant capitalists who sold the slaves, and the industrial capitalists who produced the British goods, which in turn demanded new banking facilities and functions.

Primary of these new requirements was insurance Shipowners and slave merchants themselves insured early voyages travelling the triangular trade route However the increasing amount of bills drawn against West Indian merchants and accumulated wealth soon required large scale insurance schemes most often drawn ...


Jonathan Morley and Cassandra Adjei

City with historic links to the slave trade. The first guns to be exported to Africa in 1698 were manufactured in Birmingham, renowned for its metalworking; this triggered a growth in the city's industries, and by 1766, 100,000 guns a year were shipped, as well as other tools of the slave trade: manacles, chains, branding irons, thumbscrews, pincers, muzzles, and instruments for prising open the mouths of recalcitrant slaves to make them eat. Cheaply made flintlock muskets, the guns were often dangerous to their users, and contributed to the militarization of the continent: it has been estimated that 20 million went to Africa by 1907.

The city's Lunar Society (a group of freethinkers and radicals) included members who were vehement abolitionists. Thomas Day, from Lichfield, was co‐author with Joseph Bicknell of the poem The Dying Negro (1773 a famous tract that spoke of a ...



Madge Dresser

City in the south‐west of England whose importance to black history is firmly established by its long‐term involvement in the transatlantic slave economy, by its subsequent links to the North American anti‐slavery movement, and by the developments affecting its relatively small black population since the 1960s.

1.Bristol and the ...


Eric Young

The town of Douala first developed on the southeastern shore of the Wouri River estuary in the 1700s as a station for the transatlantic slave trade. Dutch merchants initially dominated the transatlantic trade, but the town was also frequented by ethnic Duala traders, many of whom acted as middlemen in the human traffic. British influence slowly usurped the Dutch until 1884, when Germany, after signing a treaty with two Duala chiefs, formally colonized Cameroon. With a good harbor, Douala quickly became the colony’s largest trading center, attracting African migrants as well as German and, later, French and British colonists. During World War II (1939–1945), it briefly served as the colonial capital.

Although Yaoundé is now the capital of Cameroon post independence infrastructure projects have solidified Douala s role as a national and regional economic hub Today Douala handles approximately 95 percent of the country s ...



Lucy MacKeith

City with a low black population, but a good example of the historical presence of Blacks in areas outside the major port cities, an indication of how omnipresent they were in Britain from the 17th century onwards.

Parish registers provide examples such as the burial on 4 February 1631 at St Mary Major of ‘Thomas, sonne of a Blackamore’; the baptisms on 16 February 1689 at St Stephen's of ‘Mary Negro, black’, on 9 April 1735 of ‘Charles English, negro’, and on 4 December 1778 of ‘Thomas Walker, a black boy’; and the burial on 8 May 1791 of ‘Robert Hill, black, a servant at the Devon and Exeter Hospital’.

A contemporary broadsheet in November 1668 gives details of ‘200 blacks brought from the plantations of the Netherlands in America’, part of the procession led by William of Orange on his way to claim the throne in London. On 22 ...



Jacqueline Jenkinson

One of Britain's leading trading ports between the 17th and 20th centuries. Links between Glasgow and the black world originated through trade. In the late 17th century the merchant guilds of Glasgow added to its flourishing trade with the colonial tobacco plantations in mainland North America by forging trading connections with the West Indies. The Glasgow West India Association was founded in 1807. The Association spent many of its early years defending the slave trade interest. Glasgow was involved in the slave trade, but to a much smaller degree in comparison to the major slaving ports of Bristol, London, and Liverpool. Trade connections and the slave trade led to the creation of a permanent black presence in Glasgow by the late 18th century as black people arrived, settled, and married. One early black Glaswegian was David Cunningham lawfully born to Anthony a black labourer and ...


British relations with Haiti commence with the ill‐fated 1793 invasion of Saint‐Domingue, when Britain tried—but failed miserably—to wrest the richest colony in the world from French control during the upheavals of its revolutionary war (1791–1803). When Haitian independence was finally proclaimed in 1804, the British government (along with all of the other major powers) refused to recognize the second republic in the Western hemisphere, largely because it was also the first to constitutionally abolish slavery. Haiti's revolutionary foundation initiated a long‐running debate throughout the Atlantic world over how to react to the existence of a black republic at the core of the transatlantic system of slavery that drove the world economy.

In the northern Kingdom of Haiti, Henri Christophe (President, 1806–11, King 1811–20 wished to establish friendly relations with Britain partly as protection against French reconquest He modelled his government on Britain s liberal monarchy ...



John W. Pulis

The island of Jamaica is one of four geological formations (along with Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico) that constitute what is called the Greater Antilles in a grouping of island (Lesser Antilles) and mainland societies (Belize, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana) known as the Caribbean. Columbus sighted the island during his third voyage to the region (1494). He was shipwrecked during his fourth and final voyage (1502) near Saint Ann's Bay, where he established a settlement called Puerto Seco and named the island Xamaica after the Arawak xamac, meaning “land of woods and waters.” The Arawak was one of several native groups residing in the Caribbean. The tribe had originated in South America and migrated up the Lesser Antilles to populate Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica centuries before Columbus arrived.

Columbus claimed the island for Spain but colonization lagged behind that of Hispaniola Settlements ...


H.R. Costello

City in north‐western England which, by the end of the 18th century, had become one of Europe's greatest ports because of its involvement in the slave trade.

1.18th‐century settlers

2.The 1919 riots

3.Black seamen

4.Social and economic disadvantage



S. I. Martin

Capital of the United Kingdom and a historic centre of black political and cultural organization and development.

1.The black population in 2005

2.From Roman to Elizabethan London

3.London and the slave trade

4.Georgian and Victorian London

5.Black organizations


Aaron Myers

Minas Gerais was a densely forested region sparsely inhabited by Tupi and Guarani Indians before the arrival of Europeans in the seventeenth century. At that time explorers and bandeirantes (slave raiders) moved inland from São Paulo in search of Indian slaves as well as precious stones and metals.



Karen A. Porter

Numbering approximately 300,000, the Pare regard as home the steep craggy Pare Mountains that rise suddenly from the thorn-scrub plains of northeastern Tanzania. The mountains form three distinct clusters: North Pare consists of a wide, fertile, and densely populated plateau; Middle Pare is low, dry, and sparsely populated; and South Pare has long, discrete ridges, small plateaus, and the highest peak, Mt. Shengena (8,080 ft. above sea level), a sacred site and apex of a complex irrigation canal system that twists and turns across and down the mountain slopes.

Composed of alluvial, postvolcanic sediments, gneissic rocks and nonlaterized and laterized soils, the mountains provide important resources such as sandstone, shale, and limestone for construction; clay for brick making and pottery; gemstones for sale; forests for firewood and furniture; and rich arable land for smallholder agriculture, the backbone of the Pare economy.

Pare men women and children cultivate small plots at ...


Lucy MacKeith

One of the many ports on Devon's two coasts through which black people passed in and out of all parts of the country. The city has long‐term connections with the history of people of African descent, most of the earlier connections being because of the transatlantic slave trade. The now famous print of the Brookes slave ship used in the abolition campaign was originally produced for the Plymouth Committee for Abolition. The initiator of the British slave trade, Sir John Hawkins, was born in Plymouth, where he has been long recognized as a significant figure. However, the part that Africans and their descendants played in the city's history, directly and indirectly, has not been sufficiently acknowledged.

Early records of the black presence in Plymouth include references to Sir James Bagg, who in 1628 ordered that his newly arrived negrowe should be handsomely clothed and the baptism ...


Elizabeth Heath

Rabih al-Zubayr was born in Sudan, probably near Khartoum, though the details of his early life are uncertain. Some believe that he was originally a slave freed by his master, Zubayr Rahma Mansur, while others think he was born free and joined the Turkic-Egyptian army before working for Zubayr, the largest slave-trader in southern Sudan. He joined Zubayr’s company in 1850 and had become a competent military leader by 1875, when the British declared slavery illegal.

When the British forcibly shut down Zubayr s operations four years later Rabih gathered what was left of Zubayr s slave army and established a raiding stronghold in the Azande region to the west During the 1880s Rabih and his army attacked and pillaged groups such as the Banda and Sara In the early 1890s Rabih defeated a French expedition and conquered the Bagirmi state in present day Chad from which he staged ...


Hilary Beckles

Term used to refer to the making of amends, particularly by the payment of financial compensation, for wrongs committed. It first came into widespread use with reference to payment for damages caused in wartime, particularly the reparations imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 following the ...


Michael Niblett

The black presence in Scotland can be traced back as early as the 16th century. However, it is not until the late 18th and 19th centuries that one finds significant groupings of African, Caribbean, and African‐American peoples in Scotland, and so more detailed records of their activities. These relate in particular to a number of black students in Scottish universities at the time. With the institutions of Oxford and Cambridge then only admitting members of the Church of England, many African and Caribbean people wishing to study in Britain went instead to London or Scotland. In 1998 the Nobel Prizewinning author Toni Morrison, invited by the University of Glasgow to give a reading from her work, is reported to have expressed her pleasure at the offer from what at one time was ‘one of the few places in the world where African‐Americans could gain a higher education’.

Although in ...


Gloria Chuku

a local ruler in Nigeria, was most likely born in the late nineteenth century in the northern Igbo village of Umuida in Enugu-Ezike town, near present-day Nsukka. Her father, Ugbabe Ayibi, was a farmer and palm-wine tapper, and her mother, Anekwu Ameh, was a farmer and petty trader. As a teenager she moved to Igala country, perhaps to avoid being dedicated as a living sacrifice to the Ohe Goddess of Enugu-Ezike in payment for a crime committed by her father, or possibly because she was sold into slavery there. Or it may simply be that she sought the life of a “free woman.” Whatever was the case, what is certain is that Ahebi had some Igala connections prior to her disappearance from home. Members of her extended family and lineage were of Igala origin, aiding her integration into that community.

However Ahebi got to Igala country it is possible that ...


Douglas H. Johnson

Sudanese slave who reversed the missionary process by becoming an African evangelist in England. Born Atobhil Macar Kathiec among the Gok Dinka of Sudan, he was captured by slavers, freed by the Egyptian army, and subsequently employed by the missionary Charles Wilson. Educated, baptized, and confirmed in England, Wilson joined abortive missions to the Congo and Tripoli in 1887–8 and 1893, but most of his missionary efforts were undertaken with the Methodists in England, where he become known as ‘the Black Evangelist of the North’. Settling in Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire, he married his landlady in 1913, an event filmed by the local cinema. He was a popular figure in the town, where he lived until his death.

Wilson produced three books about his life and the Dinka He wrote positively about Dinka religiosity and traced his own awareness of God to the beliefs and prayers of his people ...