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Ruramisai Charumbira

spirit medium of Nehanda and political leader against British colonialism in southern Rhodesia, was born around 1862 in the Mazowe valley of today’s Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe, about 25 miles (40 kilometers) north of Harare. Charwe wokwa Hwata was a child of the Hwata dynasty (dzinza/rudzi) one of many such dynasties that formed in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as older Shona kingdoms dissolved and smaller confederacies and dynasties emerged. Charwe belonged to the Hwata through blood ties to ruling men, and her people had migrated and settled in the Mazowe valley beginning in the late 1700s.

Charwe became the medium of Nehanda in the Mazowe District around 1881. The district already had a history of Nehandas buried at Shaverunzi and a village known as Nehanda Village (kwa Nehanda Charwe therefore is more popularly known by the nonhereditary politico religious title of ...


Peter Woodward

leading Sudanese Islamist, was born in northern Sudan into the family of a qadi (Islamic judge). His father ensured that from the outset Turabi studied sharia, Islamic law, at the same time that he followed a Western education that was to lead to legal studies at the universities of Khartoum and London and finally to a doctorate from the Sorbonne in Paris.

The driving force of Turabi s life was his view of the place of Islam in the modern world His views are not to be found in any one work but in a range of writings and lectures many of which are quite generalized in their message Sometimes described as a fundamentalist Turabi was certainly not one who has sought to turn back the clock to the Arabia of the seventh century but one who sought to understand the contemporary role of Islam This involves a good ...