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Jeremy Rich

ologun (king) of the city of Lagos (in present-day Nigeria), was born early in the nineteenth century in the city that he would later rule. His father, Ologun Kuture, reigned over the port from roughly 1780 to around 1803. Akitoye’s elder brothers Adele and Osinlokun battled for power in the first two decades of the nineteenth century. Eventually Osinlokun won this struggle. Akitoye only entered the competition for the throne in the 1830s, after the death of Osinlokun and his son and successor Idewu. The latter had no children. When Idewu’s ambitious brother Kosoko tried to seize the crown, his numerous opponents in Lagos sought to find other candidates to prevent Kosoko from taking power. The aging Adele was named ologun but only lived two years Then various family leaders and chiefs selected Adele s son Oluwole to block Kosoko from becoming the king but he only lived ...


Holly Hanson

king of Buganda, an ancient polity that maintained a high degree of autonomy under British overrule in Uganda, was born on 8 August 1896 to Kabaka (king) Mwanga and Evelyn Kulabako. Daudi Chwa was placed on the throne of Buganda on 14 August 1897 when he was barely one year old after Mwanga fled the capital and began a rebellion that his leading chiefs refused to support Buganda had no tradition of regency but the only available adult prince Mbogo was Muslim and therefore unacceptable to the most powerful chiefs whose factions in the Ganda civil war had been aligned with Protestant and Catholic Christianity This civil war a result of the destabilizing effects of the slave trade had divided the kingdom during the reigns of Chwa s predecessors Mutesa and Mwanga The polity divided into factions made powerful through the exchange of people for new commodities and guns ...


Michael R. Mahoney

Zulu king from 1884 until his death, was born to the future king Cetshwayo and his second wife, Novimbi Msweli Mzimela. His name has two spellings, Dinuzulu and Dinizulu, both of which are correct. The Anglo-Zulu War broke out when Dinuzulu was only eleven years old, and the British sent his father into exile later that year, only allowing him to return to Zululand in 1883, where he died in 1884. The war and the postwar settlement imposed by the British created enormous instability in what had been until 1879 the independent Zulu kingdom The British at first divided the kingdom into eleven chiefdoms some of them headed by chiefs who had defected to the British side before and during the war The British press and the missionary lobby led by the Anglican bishop of Natal colony John Colenso had managed to persuade the imperial government to ...



Matthew H. Ellis

king of Egypt and the Sudan (r. April 1936–July 1952), was born in Cairo on 11 February 1920, the only son of King Fuʾad I and his second wife, Nazli Sabri, notably an Egyptian commoner. After a reputedly solitary and unhappy childhood inside the palace, Faruq briefly attended the Woolwich Royal Military Academy in England, at his father’s insistence. His education there was cut short when Fuʾad died abruptly in 1936 and Faruq rushed back to Egypt to accede to the throne (though he would rule for more than a year under the stewardship of a regency council). Faruq was the tenth and final member of the Ottoman-Albanian Mehmed Ali dynasty to rule in Egypt.

For the first several years of his reign Faruq a charismatic and good looking young king who unlike his father could address his subjects directly in Arabic garnered widespread support and affection among Egyptians ...


James Jankowski

king of Egypt, was born on 26 March 1868. He was the youngest son of Khedive Ismaʿil; his mother was of Circassian descent. Upon his father’s abdication in 1879, the family moved to Italy. Fuʾad received most of his formal education in Europe, first at the Tudicum Institute in Geneva and later at the Italian Military Academy in Turin. He subsequently joined the artillery corps of the Italian army. An Ottoman citizen, he spent two years as military attaché to the Ottoman Embassy in Vienna before returning to Egypt in 1892. Raised in an Ottoman family and having spent much of his youth in Italy, Fuʾad’s preferred languages were Turkish and Italian; throughout his life his competency in Arabic remained limited.

In Egypt, he served as aide-de-camp to Khedive ʿAbbas Hilmi II from 1892 to 1895 His first marriage to Princess Chivékiar produced two children but ...


Jeremy Rich

king of the Ugandan monarchy of Toro, was probably born in the late 1860s or early 1870s at a time of radical changes in Toro; his full name was Rukirabasaija Daudi Kasagama Kyebambe.

Mukama Kabarega king of the larger kingdom of Bunyoro Kitara to the north of Toro considered his southern neighbor to be a fringe province of his own kingdom Toro had broken away from Bunyoro in the early nineteenth century and so Kabarega considered Kasagama and his family to be rebels Over the course of the 1870s and 1880s Kabarega had killed most members of Kasagama s Babito dynasty Kasagama himself grew up in the Buganda kingdom as a result Advancing British officers accompanied by Sudanese mercenaries in the 1890s sought to weaken and finally conquer Bunyoro Frederick Lugard a British officer who later would become one the architects of British colony policy in Africa led an expedition ...


Kristopher Cote

thirty-fifth kabaka (king) of the Bugandan kingdom and first president of the Republic of Uganda, was born in Kampala on 19 November 1924. His full name when president was Major General Sir Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula-Muteesa. He was the fifth son of Kabaka (King) Sir Daudi Chwa II, who reigned from 1897 to 1939. Muteesa II ruled through a council of regents from 1939 until 1942, when he turned 18 and received his official coronation. He was educated at King’s College Budo, Makerere University, and Magdalene College at Cambridge, graduating in 1948. While Muteesa II was initially an unpopular ruler, his subsequent deportation and exile have left him with a popular legacy.

The first decade of Muteesa II s rule was characterized by a lack of interest in his responsibilities and he later wrote that during his time as a student he was ...


Betty Sibongile Dlamini

King of Swaziland, was born to the reigning Swazi monarch, Bhunu (Ngwane V) and Lomawa Ndwandwe on 22 July 1899. His birth names were Nkhotfotjeni (a small beautifully marked lizard) and Mona (jealousy). A few months after Sobhuza II was born, he was selected as crown prince. He had the privilege of getting a formal education at the Zombodze School that Labotsibeni, Bhunu’s mother and the Queen Regent, had established. Labotsibeni got the best tutors from Natal to tutor the crown prince. In 1916, after Sobhuza II had completed his elementary education, his grandmother adamantly stood against the royal counselors of the time and sent him to South Africa for higher education at Lovedale Missionary Institution.

In 1919 there was pressure for the king to take his position as ruler and he was recalled from Lovedale He subsequently got his public ritualization and private preparation for his ...


Shane Doyle

Bunyoro monarch (r. 1924–1967), was born to Mukama Kabarega, former Bunyoro king, and Elizabeth Kasemira. Winyi lived most of his early life in exile, being brought up in Ankole during Bunyoro’s prolonged wars of colonial conquest and then educated at Mengo High School and King’s College Budo, Uganda’s elite Anglican schools, both located in Buganda. In 1910 he was sent to the Seychelles to serve as private secretary to his exiled father, returning in 1920 to take up a position in Bunyoro’s chiefly administration.

Winyi’s older brother, Andereya Duhaga, king of Bunyoro since 1902, died in 1924 without male issue The best educated and most experienced of the princely candidates Winyi was chosen to succeed him Uganda s colonial governor used Winyi s accession to the throne as an opportunity to formally announce that Bunyoro s secondary status as a conquered territory would now be forgotten Winyi quickly ...