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Jeremy Rich

king of the Tio kingdom of the Téké people, was born at the village of Ngon, near the Gamboma River in modern Republic of the Congo. He belonged to a royal lineage since his probable grandfather, Opontaba, had been king. His kingdom engaged in several wars against Bobangui slave traders who lived north of the Malebo Pool on the Congo River in the mid-nineteenth century. The pool served as a vital meeting place for slave and ivory trading and had been controlled by Téké leaders for several centuries. Bobangui forces ultimately forced Iloo to make some concessions toward their demand for trading rights on the pool in the 1850s or 1860s. Between 1865 and 1870 Iloo was elected king by a group of powerful noble leaders The monarchy did not pass down directly from father to son among the Téké Kings were chosen by negotiations between a council of ...


Juba II  

Duane W. Roller

king of Mauretania, was a significant political leader and scholar of the Augustan period, who ruled a wide area of northwestern Africa as a king allied to Rome, and as “rex literatissimus (most learned king)” (Lucius Ampelius, Liber memorialis 38.1) was responsible for a large number of literary works.

He was the heir to the Numidian throne, a distinguished indigenous monarchy of North Africa (his ancestors included Massinissa and Jugurtha), but when his father Juba I committed suicide in 46 BC after defeat by Julius Caesar, as part of the Roman civil war, Juba II, who was only an infant at the time, saw his inheritance provincialized. He was brought to Rome by Caesar and entered the household of Caesar’s grand-niece Octavia, where he lived for twenty years, an intimate of the developing Roman imperial family. Eventually he became a Roman citizen.

In the 30s BCE his talents as ...


Michael R. Mahoney

was king of the Hlubi people in southern Africa. The upheavals that plagued the area of the present-day province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in the late 1700s and early 1800s had led to the killing of the king, Mthimkhulu, and the scattering of his people. In the early 1800s a large number of the Hlubi settled along the upper reaches of the Thukela river and attempted to reconstitute the chiefdom, naming Mthimkhulu’s son Dlomo as their king. Dlomo was himself killed at the orders of the Zulu king Dinuzulu. The Hlubi kingship then fell to Langalibalele, also known as Mthethwa. However, Langalibalele’s cousin Mini contested the throne. The resulting succession dispute was only resolved when Mini was killed by Dingane’s soldiers.

When the Boers and later the British annexed Natal in the late 1830s and early 1840s and the Thukela became the border between Natal and the Zulu kingdom ...


Nathaniel Mathews

Belgian monarch, son of Leopold I (1790–1865) and Louise-Marie of Orleans (1812–1850), was born Leopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor on 9 April 1835. His father was the first ruler of an independent Belgium after the Belgian revolt of 1830. Leopold II became, in 1865 at the age of thirty, the Belgian monarch, inheriting the title from his father. With his wife, Marie Henriette, he had four daughters.

The new king combined remarkable ambition with an uncanny ability to hide his true motives He also felt a strong unease about Belgium s place in European affairs The country was divided by class and language between the impoverished Flemish north and richer French speaking south Leopold II felt its divisions and diminutive size could be only overcome by possessing a colony From an early age he embarked on a long quest using research advocacy and stealth diplomacy in order to ...



A grandson or grandnephew of the warrior king Sundiata Keita, who first established Mali as a major empire in the thirteenth century, Musa extended it still further and ruled it at the height of its extent and power. The pivotal event in Musa’s reign was his famous pilgrimage to Mecca (1324–1325). It involved a retinue of thousands, including 500 slaves bearing golden staffs and 100 camels, each loaded with 300 pounds of gold; and such lavish spending in Cairo, Egypt, that the price of gold plummeted and took a dozen years to recover. On his return Musa brought with him numerous Muslim scholars and artisans. With their help, he attempted a systematic conversion to Islam of the sub-Saharan population, built splendid mosques, introducing Asian architecture, and spread Islamic law and civilization. During Musa’s reign (1312–1337) Tombouctou became the unquestioned cultural center and commercial ...



A. K. Vinogradov

ruler of the Egypto-Kushite kingdom of the last third of the eighth century BCE, one of the Twenty-Fifth (the “Ethiopian”) Dynasty pharaohs, was the immediate successor of King Piankhy. His name also appears in ancient sources as Shabaku (Assyrian) and Sabakon (Greek); in the scholarly literature, also as Chabaka, Shabako, Shabaqo, and Shabak, among others.

The king’s personal name is presumed to be in the native (Meroitic) language, which is still incomprehensible. The closing element, “-ka,” also present in the names of some other kings of Kush (Shabataka, Taharqa), is believed to have been an “honorific” termination. Shabaka’s fivefold pharaonic titulary also comprised his second, Egyptian, throne name, Nefer-Ka-Re (“The-Double/Spirit-of-Re-(Is)-Beautiful/Good”), the epithet Sebaq-Tawy (supposedly, “The-Blesser-of-the-Two-Lands”), and some others.

Shabaka s descent and family relationships are known insufficiently He is explicitly stated in the sources to have been a brother of Amonirdis I who being the God s Wife of Amun ...


Shane Doyle

Bunyoro monarch (r. 1924–1967), was born to Mukama Kabarega, former Bunyoro king, and Elizabeth Kasemira. Winyi lived most of his early life in exile, being brought up in Ankole during Bunyoro’s prolonged wars of colonial conquest and then educated at Mengo High School and King’s College Budo, Uganda’s elite Anglican schools, both located in Buganda. In 1910 he was sent to the Seychelles to serve as private secretary to his exiled father, returning in 1920 to take up a position in Bunyoro’s chiefly administration.

Winyi’s older brother, Andereya Duhaga, king of Bunyoro since 1902, died in 1924 without male issue The best educated and most experienced of the princely candidates Winyi was chosen to succeed him Uganda s colonial governor used Winyi s accession to the throne as an opportunity to formally announce that Bunyoro s secondary status as a conquered territory would now be forgotten Winyi quickly ...