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Allen J. Fromherz

whose name means the one who calls for victory with the help of God, was one of the most influential rulers of the Hafsids, recognized by Mecca as the spiritual leader of the Islamic world, renowned for his military prowess, remarkable building program in medieval Tunis, and his signing of a treaty in 1270 that ended the eighth crusade. His reign made Tunis one of the greatest cities of the Islamic world. He was, to many, one of the most powerful and respected rulers in the Muslim world in the second half of the thirteenth century, a century that saw many calamities for the Dar al Islam (the Abode of Islam). For instance, there was the Mongol invasion and fall of Baghdad, which led to the crushing of the last Abbasid caliph in 1248 and the destruction of Muslim cities throughout the east The origins of the Hafsids however ...