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prominent African National Congress (ANC) leader in South Africa, was born 18 May 1912 in Qutubeni village, Ngcobo, Transkei, to Alice Sisulu, domestic worker and daughter of a peasant farmer, and Victor Dickenson, a white clerk. Sisulu was raised as an African, having a rural childhood influenced by his grandmother, mother, and guardian uncle and village headman Dyanti Hlakula. Formal schooling at Manzana and Qutubeni mission schools ceased at Standard 4, aged fifteen, after which he migrated to Johannesburg, South Africa. Here he delivered milk to the mines, suffering assaults by a white employer and police. He then worked as a domestic, a sweeper, and a mine worker, where he experienced a strike and saw resistance to pass laws led by black Communists.

After visits home in 1929 and 1930 (for initiation), in 1931 he sought work in depression rife East London enduring bouts of unemployment but finding domestic ...


Peter Woodward

leading Sudanese Islamist, was born in northern Sudan into the family of a qadi (Islamic judge). His father ensured that from the outset Turabi studied sharia, Islamic law, at the same time that he followed a Western education that was to lead to legal studies at the universities of Khartoum and London and finally to a doctorate from the Sorbonne in Paris.

The driving force of Turabi s life was his view of the place of Islam in the modern world His views are not to be found in any one work but in a range of writings and lectures many of which are quite generalized in their message Sometimes described as a fundamentalist Turabi was certainly not one who has sought to turn back the clock to the Arabia of the seventh century but one who sought to understand the contemporary role of Islam This involves a good ...


third president of postapartheid South Africa, was born 12 April 1942 in Nkandla, the eldest son of Nobhekisisa Zuma and his second wife, Geinamazwi. His father was a policeman, who died when Zuma was about four years old; his mother was a domestic worker in Durban. During his humble upbringing in this poor area of Zululand (part of what is now KwaZulu-Natal), Zuma was animated by stories of Chief Bambatha’s rebellion against colonialism that had taken place only thirty-six years before Zuma’s birth. Never formally schooled—working instead as a herd boy from a young age—Zuma attained some education by paying an older girl in his village to tutor him.

Influenced by a politically active half brother and by the activism he encountered on visits to his mother in Durban Zuma joined the African National Congress ANC at seventeen His earliest activities related to the South African Congress of Trade Unions ...