1-8 of 8 Results  for:

  • Laws and Legislation x
  • 1941–1954: WWII and Postwar Desegregation x
  • Government and Politics x
  • Government and Politics x
Clear all

Article

Robert Fay

James W. Ford was born in Pratt City, Alabama, on December 22, 1893. In 1913 he entered Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, and graduated in 1920 after serving in the army during World War I (1914–1918). Ford then moved to Chicago, where he became a postal worker and joined the Chicago Postal Workers Union and the American Negro Labor Congress, both affiliates of the Communist Party USA.

Ford joined the Communist Party in 1926 and rose rapidly through its ranks. In 1928 he was a delegate to the party's executive committee meeting in Moscow. In 1931 he became vice president of the party's League of Struggle for Negro Rights. He was the first African American on a presidential ticket, running for vice president with William Z. Foster in 1932. They received 102,991 votes.

In 1933 Ford was selected to head the party s ...

Article

Kate Tuttle

At the time of his murder Chris Hani (born Martin Thembisile Hani) was second only to Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela among popular antiapartheid activists, and his militant rhetoric made him the favorite of South Africa's disaffected young blacks. His 1993 assassination occurred at the height of the negotiations between the government and antiapartheid organizations and sparked days of rioting and violent government retaliation that threatened to disrupt the negotiating process—results that some felt reflected the assassins' goals. But the crisis instead proved the strength of Mandela's leadership, as the African National Congress (ANC) appealed for calm and continued the talks.

Hani, who was born in the bantustan, or “black homeland,” of Transkei and graduated from the University of Fort Hare in 1962, was a classics scholar turned freedom fighter. He joined the ANC Youth League in 1957 and in 1962 went into exile to join the ANC s newly ...

Article

The son of former slaves, Harry Haywood moved with his family from Nebraska to Minneapolis, which he left to fight in the 370th Infantry in France during World War I. Settling in Chicago, Illinois in the early 1920s, Haywood supported himself as a bootblack, busboy, and bellboy. He was recruited into the African Blood Brotherhood, a secret Black Nationalist organization, as well as into the Young Workers League, both associated with the Communist Party of the USA (CPUSA).

Haywood was a leading proponent of Black Nationalism, self-determination, and the idea that American blacks are a colonized people who should organize themselves into a nation. From 1926 to 1930, Haywood studied in the Soviet Union, where he met several anticolonial revolutionaries, including Vietnam's Ho Chi Minh. On his return to the U.S. in 1931 he was chosen to head the Communist Party s Negro Department ...

Article

George Reid Andrews

The son and grandson of Cuban independence war veterans, Jesús Menéndez was born on a small farm in Santa Clara Province. After completing the fourth grade, he left school and went to work first on local tobacco and sugar farms and then, in 1928, at the La Constancia sugar mill. Joining the recently established Communist Party in 1931, he took a leading role in unionizing the work force at La Constancia and in the first efforts to form a national sugar workers union, the Sindicato Nacional Obrero de la Industria Azucarera (SNOIA). When the SNOIA succumbed to government repression in the 1930s, Menéndez remained active in local and provincial-level organizations. In 1938 he was elected secretary general of the provincial labor federation of Santa Clara. When a second national sugar workers union, the Federación Nacional de Obreros Azucareros, was established in 1939 he became its vice secretary ...

Article

Jalane Schmidt

Born and raised in the San Francisco area, William L. Patterson attended local public schools and later abandoned studies in engineering at the University of California at Berkeley to pursue a J.D. at the Hastings College of Law in San Francisco. At Hastings Patterson began a lifelong involvement in political issues, protesting racism and arguing against African American participation in the “white man's” World War I. Earning his law degree in 1919, Patterson moved to New York City and established a legal practice in Harlem with two colleagues. His years in New York coincided with the height of the Harlem Renaissance, and Patterson developed relationships with Paul Robeson, W. E. B. Du Bois, and other prominent African American activists. He began to work increasingly with left-wing causes, and was active in the ultimately fruitless campaign to free Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti immigrant Italian anarchists ...

Article

Barbara L. Ciccarelli

Patterson, William L. (27 August 1891–05 March 1980), writer, attorney, and leader of the American Communist party was born William Lorenzo Patterson in San Francisco California the son of James Edward Patterson a ship s cook and dentist and Mary Galt a domestic After his father left the family to become a missionary as a Seventh day Adventist his mother worked to support the family Failure to pay the rent resulted in numerous evictions but Patterson managed to attend Tamalpais High School in California by working first as a newsboy and later as a racetrack hand He graduated from high school in 1911 and studied to be a mining engineer at the University of California Berkeley but had to drop out because he could not afford tuition No scholarships were available and he objected to Berkeley s compulsory military training Later Patterson refused to participate in World ...

Article

Barbara L. Ciccarelli

writer, attorney, and leader of the American Communist Party, was born William Lorenzo Patterson in San Francisco, California, the son of James Edward Patterson, a ship's cook and dentist, and Mary Galt, a domestic. After his father left the family to become a missionary as a Seventh-day Adventist, his mother worked to support the family. Failure to pay the rent resulted in numerous evictions, but Patterson managed to attend Tamalpais High School in California by working first as a newsboy and later as a racetrack hand. He graduated from high school in 1911 and studied at the University of California Berkeley to be a mining engineer but he had to drop out because he could not afford tuition No scholarships were available and he objected to Berkeley s compulsory military training Later Patterson refused to participate in World War I because he felt that ...

Article

Kate Tuttle

Lithuanian-born Joe Slovo moved to South Africa at the age of nine and grew up in a working-class Jewish neighborhood in Johannesburg. In 1942 he joined the Communist Party of South Africa (later renamed the South African Communist Party) and, shortly thereafter, the South African Army, with which he fought in World War II (1939–1945). After the war he studied law at the University of Witwatersrand, where he befriended Nelson Mandela, who was then the university’s only black student. When Mandela and others formed the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League in 1944, Slovo argued for the multiracial cooperation that became an ANC trademark.

Slovo acted as Mandela’s lawyer in his first trial for treason in 1956 a trial in which Slovo was also a defendant In the early 1960s he helped found Umkhonto we Sizwe the ANC s covert military wing and served for a ...