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A. K. Vinogradov

queen of Kush, was the mother of Taharqa (ruled c. 690–664 BCE), the most remarkable king of the period of the Kushite domination in Egypt (the Twenty-Fifth, “Ethiopian,” Dynasty). Her name is also interpreted in specialist literature as Abala, Abale, Abalo, Abiru, and Ibart.

The information about Abar is extremely scanty The main sources are several stelae of her son Taharqa found during excavations at Gematen near the modern village of Kawa south of the Third Cataract of the Nile one of the major sanctuaries of Kush The relief at the top of one of the stelae represents Abar in two symmetrical scenes playing sistrum behind Taharqa as he presents bread and wine to the god Amun Similar representations of her were found in a wall relief in the so called Temple B 300 at Jebel Barkal the main temple complex of ancient Sudan situated between the Third and Fourth ...



Hannington Ochwada

queen of Egypt, is one of the most prominent women leaders in ancient Egyptian history. She possessed numerous titles that provide us with invaluable insights into her role and stature in the New Kingdom. She was referred to as “Peace of the Moon.” Her father was King Tao I and her mother Queen Tetisheri. She was the sister and wife of her brother, Seqenenre Tao II, one of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt who died on the battlefield in a campaign that was aimed at expelling the Hyksos from Egypt. Ahhotep was the mother of Kamose and Ahmose, the subsequent kings of Egypt after the death of Tao II, and also the mother of Ahmose-Nefertari, wife of king Ahmose.

Some historians and Egyptologists considered Ahhotep the first of several of the most notable powerful and remarkable women of influence in the New Kingdom While some consider her to be the ...


Kathleen Sheldon

queen mother in Ghana, where she served as asantehemaa from around 1809 until about 1819, when she was removed from office after being involved in a failed rebellion against Osei Tutu Kwame. Her father was Apa Owusi, who held the position of mampon apahene, or chief of the locality of Mampon; her mother, Sewaa Awukuwa, was a member of the Asante royal family. It appears from some sources that Adoma Akosua was married to a son of Asantehene Osei Kwadwo.

When the ruling queen mother, Asantehemaa Konadu Yaadom, died in 1809, there were two women with a strong genealogical claim to succeed her. One was Konadu Yaadom’s own daughter, Yaa Dufi, and the other was Adoma Akosua. Adoma Akosua was a matrilateral cousin of Asantehene Osei Tutu Kwame (their mothers were sisters); as such she was eligible to be named asantehemaa and she was selected for ...


Eugenio Fantusati

queen of Meroe, reigned during the second half of the first century BCE. She is shown dressed in ceremonial clothes on the pylon of her pyramid, Beg. n. 6, spearing bound prisoners: this action illustrates clearly the queen’s status as fully equal to the king in Meroitic ideology. Another form of her name is Amanishakheto.

In a second portrait found on the same monument (the original block is actually kept in Berlin) it is possible to observe the presence of three scars under her left eye. Considering that the practice of scarring was also employed for medical purposes, it has been hypothesized that Amanishaketo could have been the one-eyed kandake who fought the Romans during the 20s bce, especially since Amanishaketo’s presence inside the Dodekascoenus in that period is confirmed by a long inscription left by the same Kushite queen in Qasr Ibrim.

As the successor of Amanirenas and the ...


Eugenio Fantusati

queen of Meroe, was crowned under the name of Merkare and reigned over the Meroitic empire in coregency with her husband, Natakamani, between the end of the first century BCE and the first decade of the first century CE.

As with the other Kushite queens, her title was kdke (kandake, or candace, probably translating as “regal sister”), an attribution common in Egypt among the royal brides during the Eighteenth dynasty and adopted later in Nubia by the brides of the Twenty-Fifth dynasty’s black pharaohs and subsequently by the wives of the Napatan and Meroitic sovereigns.

The complete lack of written sources relating to her kingdom forces us to make exclusive reference to the archaeological remains and above all to the reliefs in which Amanitore was represented The images at our disposal first of all show her in the prominent role of invincible warrior On the northern pylon of temple N ...


Salim Faraji

was a Meroitic queen of the ancient empire of Kush. Her name is a Meroitic rendition of the supreme royal deity Amen-Ra. It is because of her exploits in defending Kushite sovereignty against Roman advances that the Meroitic title for queen mother kandake, translated as “candace,” became popular during the Roman era and is alluded to in the New Testament Book of Acts.

Ameniras’s existence is documented in four epigraphic sources. The most well known of these inscriptions is the famous Hamadab stela, discovered by the archaeologist John Garstang in 1910 in the vicinity of the ancient capital of the Kushite Empire Meroe City The stela written in the ancient Meroitic language has been interpreted by scholars as an account of Kush s military encounter with Rome The text provides a Kushite perspective on the Roman Kushite war that was waged between 25 and 21 BCE and celebrates ...



LaRay Denzer

sarauniya (queen) of Zazzau (present-day Zaria, Nigeria), was the legendary warrior and state builder who established the kingdom of Zazzau as a major Hausa state in the sixteenth century. Also known as Aminatu, she may have been born about 1533, but this is uncertain. She was the eldest daughter of Bakwa Turunku, the twenty-second sarki (ruler) of Zazzau (now Zaria). There are conflicting accounts about the gender of this ruler. Historian Abubakr Saʾad believes that she was a woman and argues that she very likely was the sarauniya of Kufena, the predecessor kingdom to Zazzau. Among the estates under her authority was Turunku. When an interregnum occurred, she was either appointed ruler or seized control of Kufena and in 1537 moved her capital to Zazzau which she named after her second daughter to secure land for expansion and better water supplies Her reign was mostly peaceful except for ...


Duane W. Roller

one of the early and significant Ptolemaic queens of Egypt, was the daughter of Magas, king of Kyrene (the Greek settlement west of Egypt in modern Libya, also known as Cyrene) and his wife, Apama. Magas was a son of Berenice I, the grandmother of Berenice II, and thus the second Berenice was related to the Ptolemaic family even before she married into it. Magas was a military commander for the Egyptian king Ptolemaios II (Ptolemy II Philadelphus), who conquered Kyrene for the king but then declared himself an independent ruler. He married the Seleukid princess Apama, and Berenice II was born around 270 BCE. Before Magas's death (around 250 BCE), he and Ptolemaios II reconciled and concluded a marriage alliance between their children Berenice and the future Ptolemaios III But when Magas died his widow Apama nullified this arrangement opposing any agreement with Egypt and married Berenice ...


Robert Fay

Cleopatra VII was the second daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, the king of Egypt. Although born in Alexandria, Egypt, she was a member of the dynasty of the Ptolemies. Ptolemy Soter, the dynasty’s founder, had come from the Greek-speaking region of Macedonia with Alexander the Great and established a kingdom in Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 b.c.e. Upon her father’s death, Cleopatra became queen in 51 b.c.e., at the age of eighteen, ruling with her fifteen-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII. Fluent in Egyptian, unlike previous Ptolemies, Cleopatra sought to strengthen her support among Egyptians by claiming she was the daughter of Ra, the Egyptian sun god.

Encouraged by his advisers Ptolemy XIII exiled Cleopatra and claimed the throne as his own Cleopatra assembled an army from Syria but could not assert her claim to the throne until the Roman ruler Julius Caesar arrived Cleopatra aimed to restore ...


Duane W. Roller

was queen of Mauretania (25–5 BCE). She was the daughter of the Roman triumvir Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII, the last Greek queen of Egypt. Her surname (“the Moon”)—and that of her twin brother Alexander Helios (“the Sun”)—represents prophetic and allegorical concepts of the era in which she was born as well as her parents’ ambitious plans to create a new world order (Plutarch, Antonius 36).

Little is known about the first decade of her life. She participated, along with her parents and siblings, in the elaborate ceremony known as the Donations of Alexandria of 34 BCE, when she was made queen of the Cyrenaeca (Dio 49.32.4–5), a title more symbolic than real, although supported by coinage and one that she would retain throughout her life.

With the collapse of her mother s kingdom in the summer of 30 BCE and the provincialization of Egypt by the Romans Cleopatra Selene ...


Prudence Jones

queen of Egypt, was the last ruler in the Ptolemaic dynasty, which held power in Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BCE. The Egyptian ruler referred to as Cleopatra was Cleopatra VII, daughter of Ptolemy XII, one of Alexander the Great’s Macedonian generals.

The identity of Cleopatra s mother is not known for certain She may have been the daughter of Ptolemy XII and his first wife Cleopatra V Cleopatra V disappears from the historical record sometime before 68 BCE however and it is unclear whether this disappearance occurred before or after Cleopatra s birth in 69 BCE It is possible that Cleopatra s mother may have been a concubine of Ptolemy XII who himself was the son of Ptolemy IX and a concubine The third option is that Cleopatra was the daughter of Ptolemy XII s second ...


“Cleopatra was an Egyptian woman who made herself into an object of gossip for the whole world,” or so Boccaccio, the Renaissance humanist, wanted his readers to believe. But Boccaccio formed his opinion of her from classical Roman writers, and Cleopatra was the enemy of Rome. She was the last pharaoh of Egypt, but when Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 b.c.e. she was living in great state in Rome. Cleopatra was Caesar’s lover and she had a son by him. Twenty years later she would join Mark Antony in his opposition to Octavian (later known as Caesar Augustus). Together they would make a bid to establish an eastern empire to rival Rome.

Issues of politics and desire are at stake in representing Cleopatra In her image they are fascinatingly entwined and collapsed into each other which is one reason why the figure of Cleopatra has survived so strongly ...



Duane W. Roller

legendary founder and queen of Carthage, also called Dido, Deido, and Theiosso. Although certainly a mythological figure, her treatment especially by Vergil in the Aeneid ensured her continuing popularity into modern times as one of the great figures of antiquity.

The earliest extant literary account of her is by Timaios in the fourth century BCE, and the most detailed historical version is that of Pompeius Trogus, from the end of the first century BCE, which, although probably somewhat later than the Aeneid, shows no knowledge of it and reflects earlier historical material. Timaios, a Sicilian, may have had access to Carthaginian information, but as presented Elissa’s tale is purely Greek.

Upon the death of her father Mutto king of Tyre Elissa became joint ruler of the city with her brother Pygmalion who promptly killed her husband Acherbas allegedly for his wealth Elissa eventually gathered supporters and left Tyre going ...


Cecily Jones

Queen of England and patron of slave‐trading ventures.

1.Genesis of the British slave trade

2.Africans in Elizabethan England

3.Scapegoating ‘Blackamoors’

4.Attempts to expel Blacks



Abdul Sheriff

queen on the island of Unguja in the archipelago of Zanzibar during the last years of Portuguese rule along the Swahili coast, was descended from one of the Sayyid dynasties from Hadhramaut in south Yemen. Her full name was Fatuma binti Yusuf al-Alawi. She is considered in local traditions to be of Shirazi (Persian) origin, and she maintained close connections with the African mainland, typical of cosmopolitan Indian Ocean communities.

The dynasty in Zanzibar maintained an intimate relationship with Utondwe, on the African coast directly to the west of Zanzibar, and at least two generations of the respective ruling families intermarried. It is also said that the regalia of the rulers of Zanzibar—a wooden side-blown siwa horn and the royal drums—came from Utondwe. They are now in the House of Wonders Museum in Zanzibar.

Fatuma was one of at least twenty six queens who ruled various Swahili city states between ...


Judith Imel Van Allen

mohumagadi (queen or queen-mother) successively of the Mmanaana Kgatla and BaNgwaketse (subgroups of the BaTswana in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, present-day Botswana), was born around 1845. She was also regent of the BaNgwaketse for her grandson, Bathoen II, later a prominent leader in colonial and postindependence politics. Gagoangwe was a daughter of Sechele I, king (kgosi) of the BaKwena, and his wife Mokgokong. As a child, Gagoangwe put out the eye of a servant, and her militantly Christian father, asserting both the biblical injunction of “an eye for an eye” and a certain equality among BaKwena, allowed the servant to blind his own daughter in return. She later became known as the “one-eyed queen.”

Gagoangwe first married Kgosi Pilane of the Mmanaana Kgatla, but in 1875 eloped with Bathoen I, heir to rulership (bogosi of the BaNgwaketse and later married him Gagoangwe was a devout Christian and an ...



Zuzanna Augustyniak

also known as Yodit or Judith, or under her Ethiopian nickname “Esato” (“Fire”), was a legendary Ethiopian queen, who in the tenth century is claimed to have invaded Aksum with her army, burned and plundered the city, and overthrown the Aksumite king, thus causing the downfall of the Aksumite Empire. She is also said to be the founder of the Zagwe dynasty.

Much of the legend of Gudit is derived from the Chronicle of Ethiopia, Tekle Haymanot’s thirteenth-century compilation of various chronicles from different churches and monasteries. Portions of these manuscripts are cited in the scholar Sergew Hable Selassie’s 1972 study Gudit was in this account a princess from a royal house Her grandfather was the emperor Wedem Asfere and her mother was from the Hahayle district in Tigray The chronicle suggests that due to an intrigue Gudit was banished from the court and became a prostitute in ...


Edna G. Bay

kpojito, the reign-mate of King Tegbesu (r. 1740–1774) of the Fon kingdom of Dahomey (located in what is now southern Benin), was a commoner and possibly a slave. She was without question the most powerful female figure in eighteenth-century Dahomean history and arguably one of the most important individuals in the history of the kingdom. A woman noted for her spiritual powers, Hwanjile ruled in tandem with King Tegbesu. Together they secured the kingdom from various internal and external threats and reordered the spiritual life of the kingdom, ushering in a period of relative peace and prosperity.

Hwanjile was from Ajahome, an area to the west-southwest of Dahomey’s capital, Abomey. She was already an adult with two children and a reputation as an effective priest of the vodun or spirits when she came to Dahomey probably as a captive of war during the reign of King Agaja ...


Kathleen Sheldon

ruler of the Itsekiri kingdom of Warri in the western Niger delta, an area in the center of trade in slaves, palm oil, rubber, and other items. Also called “Queen Dola,” she was the daughter of King Erejuwa and his wife Emaye. Emaye had two daughters with Erejuwa, Uwala and Idolorusan, who was known as “Iye.” After Erejuwa’s death, Emaye remarried his son (from a prior marriage) and successor, Akengbuwa, and had three more children, including her sons Omateye and Ejo. Omateye was the recognized heir, though he was in a rivalry with an older half-brother, Agbagba. Fearing that her brother might need a refuge, Iye and her sister Uwala founded the town of Batere. Difficulties arose following the death of Akengbuwa in 1848 as it was closely followed by the deaths of Omateye and Ejo in what some considered suspicious circumstances For three years there is no record ...


Jeremy Rich

queen mother, was born in the kingdom of Rwanda sometime in the middle of the nineteenth century. She belonged to the influential Bakagara lineage of the Bega clan. Her father, Rwakagara, was a leader of the Bakagara lineage who had been deeply involved in the byzantine and often brutal competition within the Rwandan royal family. Sometime in the 1870s Kanjogera married the Rwandan monarch Rwabugiri (reigned 1867–1897). She became his favorite wife as he led numerous wars against neighboring states and ordered the killings of suspected enemies within Rwandan nobility and his own family. Around 1889 Rwabugiri decided to make Kanjogera the adoptive queen mother of his son Rutarindwa (who was born to a different wife), even though his son belonged to a different clan. Rutarindwa co-ruled with his father for several years until Rwabugiri's death in September 1895 Ritual specialists of the court proclaimed Kanjogera as ...