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Esther Aillón Soria

for the rights of Afro-Bolivians, and cofounder and director of Fundación AFROBO for Afro-Bolivian children. She belongs to the generation of young Afro-Bolivians born in one of the three main Bolivian cities (La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz) who affirmed their identity by turning their gaze toward the rural communities of one or both of their parents. Through this lens of introspection and cultural struggle, Angola Campos sought to educate children regarding their rights and to strengthen the Afro-Bolivian community.

Her father, Germán Angola Maconde (1959– ), was of African descent, born in the Coscoma community of Coripata, North Yungas. He migrated to the city of La Paz in 1998 and worked as a businessman importing auto parts. Her mother, Mercedes Campos Gorriti (1955– ), was of Aymara origins, born in La Paz, an educator dedicated to recovering and practicing Aymara traditional wisdom. Carmen’s siblings were Pedro (d. 2004 ...

Article

Amalia K. Amaki

graphic artist, painter, printmaker, and political activist, was born in Chicago in 1931. An only child, he attended Chicago public schools, moving briefly to Washington, D.C., to study at Howard University with Alain Leroy Locke, Sterling Allen Brown, and James Amos Porter. After one year he then enrolled at Alabama State College (later Alabama State University) to study under the sculptor, painter, and printmaker Hayward Louis Oubre, and he received a bachelor of arts degree. Bailey continued study at the University of Southern California (USC) as a student of Charles White and the Hungarian-born Francis de Erdely. He earned the bachelor of fine arts degree in 1958 and the master of fine arts degree in 1960. At USC he worked as a graduate assistant for two years, introducing the students Mel Edwards and Calvin Burnett to the work ...

Article

Jennifer Carolina Gómez Menjívar

was born in Bluefields, Nicaragua, to a working-class family. The youngest of eleven children, she was a self-taught painter who began her career painting free portraits before becoming one of Nicaragua’s most renowned artists. Her paintings depicted the landscapes and people of that country’s Atlantic Coast, a historically marginalized region.

Beer is the only painter from Bluefields to have received national and international attention for her artwork. The city was a major port during the colonial period, when it was the capital of the British Protectorate of the Mosquito Coast. It was incorporated into Nicaragua in 1894, though it remained largely forgotten and ignored until the late twentieth century. Thus its primarily Afro-descendant and Afro-indigenous population remained economically and politically disenfranchised throughout its history. It was in this context that Beer raised four children as a single mother.

Beer began painting during a two year stay in the United ...

Article

Christopher Campbell

London‐born poet, printer, visionary, and ‘prophet against empire’. Over the course of his lifetime Blake confronted the horrors of slavery through his literary and pictorial art. He was able both to counter pro‐slavery propaganda and to complicate typical abolitionist verse and sentiment with a profound and unique exploration of the effects of enslavement and the varied processes of empire.

Blake's poem ‘The Little Black Boy’ from Songs of Innocence (1789 examines the mind forg d manacles of racial constructions in the minds of individuals both in the poem itself in the form of the black child and his white counterpart and also in the minds of those involved in the political dispute over abolition Seeming to explain a desire for racial acceptance and spiritual purity through assimilation into white British society and seeming also to be endorsing conventional assumptions of white racial superiority the poem ...

Article

Susan B. Iwanisziw

commercial painter, artist, and activist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the only known child of Jeremiah Bowser from Maryland and Rachel Bustill, daughter of the prosperous black abolitionist and educator Cyrus Bustill. The intermarriage among the region's free black Quaker families headed by Cyrus Bustill, Robert Douglass Sr., Jeremiah Bowser, and David Mapps created a dynamic force that benefited all African Americans and particularly spurred David s personal growth and accomplishments Jeremiah a member of the Benezet Philosophical Society served as a steward on the Liverpool lines and later it seems he was the proprietor of an oyster house near the intersection of 4th and Cherry Streets where David Bowser first hung up his sign as a commercial painter Later the Bowser family moved to the Northern Liberties section of Philadelphia into a house at 481 North 4th Street where Bowser remained for the ...

Article

Kennedy A. Walibora Waliaula

South African painter, writer, poet, and antiapartheid activist, was born in Bonnievale in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The third-born child in a family of five (four sons, and one daughter), Breytenbach was a twin, although his twin died at infancy. The Breytenbachs descended from the lineage of one Coenrad Breytenbach, a military officer of lower rank who arrived in South Africa from Europe in 1656 It is unclear whether Coenrad Breytenbach was Dutch or whether he had other European origins On the maternal side Breyten Breytenbach descended from the Cloetes of France However he would often downplay his European origins stressing instead his ties to Africa Two of his brothers were prominent figures in South Africa and had strong associations with the apartheid system Jan was a senior military officer while Cloete was a famous photojournalist Breytenbach s opposition to apartheid and Afrikanerdom made him something of a ...

Article

Juliette Bridgette Milner-Thornton

Zambianartist, illustrator, wildlife conservationist, and author, was born on 23 September 1930 in Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia, present-day Zambia. Ellison's husband, Anthony Ellison (deceased) was director of Zambia State Lottery Board. The couple had no children (Polunin and Curme 1997, p. 93; The Post, 4 November 2004). Ellison spent her childhood with her parents among the Ila people in the Mumbwa and Namwala district. Ellison's childhood in rural Zambia influenced her paintings. She attended school in Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Britain where she trained as an artist in private studios. In 1948 she was one of the founding members of the Art Society in Lusaka, Zambia (Setti 2000, pp. 22–30). From 1960 to 1974 Ellison was head of the graphic art and exhibition section and chief graphic artist in the Northern Rhodesia Information Services; after independence in 1964 the organization was renamed ...

Article

Diana Wylie

South African artist and activist, was born Thamsanqa Harry Mnyele on 10 December 1948, in a house owned by his maternal grandparents on Sixth Avenue, Alexandra Township, Johannesburg. He was the second child of David Freddy Harry “Khotso” Mnyele and Sarah Mamanyena, née Thamane. His father was then working as a clerk but, after studying at Wilberforce Institute, Evaton, became a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church in the early 1950s. His parents divorced in 1952. His mother, working as a domestic servant in the white suburbs of Johannesburg, sent her children in 1956 to live with relatives in Makapanstad, a village northwest of Pretoria. There, Mnyele attended Thipe and Mmamudu schools and Nchaupe II Memorial College. He left Nchaupe before taking his matriculation exam. In 1973 he studied art for nine months at the Evangelical Lutheran Church Art and Craft Centre at Rorke s ...

Article

Kim Miller

photographer and activist, was born on 19 July 1972 in Umlazi, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Muholi studied advanced photography at the Market Photo Workshop in Newtown, Johannesburg. From 2007–2009 she studied Documentary Media at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada. Since the end of apartheid, Muholi has commented on the near total lack of visual and textual representation of people from the black lesbian community within South Africa during that country's historic antiapartheid struggle. At that time, the black lesbian community, Muholi included, was physically isolated from the urban centers where LGBT organizations and resources were located.

As an activist, she was a cofounder of the Forum for the Empowerment of Women (FEW), a nonprofit black lesbian advocacy organization based in Johannesburg. She has worked as a photographer and reporter for Behind the Mask an online magazine on lesbian and gay issues in Africa Muholi has received a number ...

Article

Dorothy B. Porter

Patrick Henry Reason was born in New York City, one of four children of Michel and Elizabeth Melville Reason. He was baptized on April 17, 1816, as Patrice Rison. His father, Michel Rison, was from Sainte-Anne, Guadeloupe, and his mother, Elizabeth Melville, was from Santo Domingo (in what is now the Dominican Republic). Patrick's young sister, Policarpe, died in 1818 at age four. His brother Elver (or Elwer) did not attain the prominence that Patrick or his brother Charles Lewis did. All three brothers received their early education at the New York African Free School, established on Mulberry Street by the New York Manumission Society. Patrick Reason's skill as an engraver was recognized at age thirteen when he made an engraving of the African Free School that was printed as a frontispiece of Charles C. Andrews's History of the New York African ...

Article

Theresa Leininger-Miller

printmaker and abolitionist, was born in New York City, the son of Michel Reason of St. Anne, Guadeloupe, and Elizabeth Melville of Saint-Dominique. Reason was baptized as Patrick Rison in the Church of St. Peter on 17 April 1816. While it is not known why the spelling of his name changed, it may have been an homage to the political leader Patrick Henry. While he was still a student at the African Free School in New York, his first engraving was published, the frontispiece to Charles C. Andrews's The History of the New York African Free-Schools (1830). It carried the byline “Engraved from a drawing by P. Reason, aged thirteen years.” Shortly thereafter, Reason became apprenticed to a white printmaker, Stephen Henry Gimber and then maintained his own studio at 148 Church Street in New York where he offered a wide variety of engraving ...

Article

Frank Martin

artist, educator, and community activist, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Edward Rose Sr. and Mary Marshall. Arthur Rose attended the segregated public schools in Charleston. In 1942 Rose enlisted as a ship serviceman in the U.S. Navy; he served until 1945. A member of Company 1621, 18th Regiment, 28th Battalion of the U.S. Naval Reserve Corps, Rose entered basic training in Chicago and was later stationed at the naval base in Norfolk, Virginia, for the duration of the war, and did not see combat. He returned to Charleston and graduated from Burke High School in 1946. He later matriculated at Claflin University, South Carolina's oldest historically black institution of higher learning, established in 1869.

Rose was among the first students in Claflin s history to major in fine arts During his college tenure Rose met and married fellow ...

Article

Nico Slate

artist, teacher, and activist, was born in Aberdeen, Mississippi, the son of Cleveland Sykes, a handyman, and Anna Bell Clay. Growing up in Mississippi and in St. Louis, Missouri, Sykes and his eight siblings faced segregation and poverty. In the face of racism and hardship, his parents taught him to treat his home and his neighborhood with care and respect. In 1958 Sykes moved to San Diego, California, where he began painting in his spare time and where he met Erma Thornton. In 1961 he moved again, this time to Los Angeles, where two years later he and Erma were married.

Rozzell and Erma Sykes rented a small bungalow on the 4800 block of St Elmo Drive in Mid City Los Angeles The building was old and dilapidated but the Sykeses improved it practicing one of Rozzell s favorite sayings If you are ...

Article

Ann M. Shumard

abolitionist, photographer, and Liberian statesman, was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the son of Christian Washington, a former slave from Virginia who operated an oyster saloon, and a woman who is identified only as a native of South Asia. She apparently died soon after his birth, for his father remarried in October 1821. Washington was raised in Trenton and until early adolescence attended school with white students. When access to such schooling ended in the face of growing racism, he was left to continue his education on his own. He worked for his father for several years, studied intermittently, and became an avid reader of Benjamin Lundy's Genius of Universal Emancipation and William Lloyd Garrison's Liberator These papers aroused Washington s hatred of slavery and racial prejudice and inspired him to become an activist Eager to contribute to the uplift of his ...

Article

Ann M. Shumard

Washington, Augustus (1820 or 1821–07 June 1875), abolitionist, photographer, and Liberian statesman, was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the son of Christian Washington, a former slave from Virginia who operated an oyster saloon, and a woman who is identified only as a native of South Asia. She apparently died soon after his birth, for his father remarried in October 1821. Washington was raised in Trenton and until early adolescence attended school with white students. When access to such schooling ended in the face of growing racism, he was left to continue his education on his own. He worked for his father for several years, studied intermittently, and became an avid reader of Benjamin Lundy's Genius of Universal Emancipation and William Lloyd Garrison's Liberator These papers aroused Washington s hatred of slavery and racial prejudice and inspired him to become an activist Eager to contribute ...

Article

David Dabydeen

Potter and active participant in the fight for the abolition of slavery. Wedgwood was born in Burslem, Stoke‐on‐Trent, the youngest son of Thomas Wedgwood, a potter. From 1787 until his death in 1795, Wedgwood sought to highlight the injustices of slavery and the slave trade. He was politically and socially conscious and was interested in the consequences of the American War of Independence and the French Revolution. His awareness concerning slavery was probably evoked through his friendship with Thomas Bentley, a Liverpool merchant who remained hostile to the trade and refused to welcome slavers back to the port. Another close connection of Wedgwood's was Thomas Clarkson, who set up the Sierra Leone Company, which sought to provide a habitable colony for freed slaves. Wedgwood eventually became a shareholder of the company.

Wedgwood s most significant contribution to the abolitionist cause was the production of a medallion ...

Article

Kim Miller

South African artist, writer, and human rights activist, was born in Lichfield, England, in 1941. Williamson’s family emigrated to South Africa in 1948, just months before the Nationalist Party came into power. Raised in what was then the Western Transvaal, Williamson studied journalism at the University of Natal (Durban). In 1969 she achieved a fine arts degree at the Art Students League of New York. Williamson returned to South Africa in 1969 and received an advanced diploma in fine arts from the Michaelis School of Fine Art in Cape Town in 1984. She became a South African citizen in 1990, once it was clear that apartheid was coming to an end.

As artist Sue Williamson is highly respected for her involvement in human rights organizations associated with the antiapartheid movement and for her efforts to make visible the experiences of people and communities who were marginalized ...