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Stuart Schwartz

Maroon leader also known as Zumbi, lived much of his life in the interior of the captaincy of Pernambuco in an area that is today the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The circumstances of his birth and early life are basically unknown, but those of his later life and death have become a matter of national debate, pride, and legend. In 1978 Brazil declared 20 November to be the Dia Nacional da Consciência Negra (National Day of Black Consciousness), which in 2003 became a holiday commemorating the death of Zumbi of Palmares This date is one of the few secure facts that remain about the last leader of Palmares the largest Maroon community in Brazil His life and death like the history of Palmares itself have been shrouded in myth and controversy but both Zumbi and Palmares have become symbols of Afro Brazilian resistance to slavery and more recently of ...