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Idris I  

Marian Aguiar

Sidi Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi was born in al-Joghboub, Libya, the son of Sayyid al-Mahdi, leader of the Sanusi, a powerful Islamic religious order. As heir to his father’s position, Idris became the de facto ruler of the Libyan region of Cyrenaica, where the Sanusi order was based. Soon after he assumed leadership at the age of twenty-two, Idris began negotiations with Italy for recognition of an emirate in Cyrenaica. In 1920, in return for a promise that Cyrenaicans would lay down their arms, Italy acknowledged Idris as the autonomous Sanusi emir of several oases. Many nationalists from both Tripolitania and Cyrenaica subsequently regarded Idris as the leader of the independence movement.

During World War II Idris risked reprisal from Italy by allying with Great Britain Following the Allied victory he was installed as emir of Cyrenaica Libyan support for the monarchy was in no way complete some nationalists in ...


James H. Vaughan

emir of Madagali, a small Fulbe (Fulani)-ruled suzerainty on the east bank of the Yedseram River in what is today Nigeria (1902–1927), was born in Madagali, Nigeria, the son of Ardo Bakari Njidda and was formally named Muhammad Yaji. He is largely known because of a journal he kept between 1912 and 1927 in which he recounted his daily routine, administrative travel, dealings with family, friends, and government administrators, and raids upon pagan hamlets.

At the beginning of his reign, Madagali—the name denotes both a town and the surrounding area—was a part of German Kamerun, but following World War I the area became a League of Nations Mandated Territory, first under the French and then, after 1920 the British who governed it as a part of British Northern Cameroons This sequence as well as increasing European penetration into the area led to considerable friction between Hamman Yaji and the ...