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Gloria Chuku

Nigerian market trader and businesswoman who wielded enormous influence in the nineteenth-century politics of Lagos and Abeokuta, was born Efunporoye Osuntinubu Olumosa (commonly shortened to Efunroye Tinubu) around 1805 to Owu parents in the Yoruba town of Abeokuta, in present-day western Nigeria. Efunroye learned the art of trading from her mother, Nijeede, who was a food-seller, and from her grandmother, Osunsola, who dealt in leaves, herbs, roots, and tree bark. She married an Owu man with whom she had two sons. Shortly after, her mother and her husband both passed away. As a widow, she started trading in leaves and tree bark. She met and married Adele in 1833, who was an exiled oba or king of Lagos She followed him to Badagry where she established a lucrative enterprise in salt and tobacco which she exchanged for slaves from Abeokuta Through commercial associations with Brazilian slave dealers and other ...


Jonathan G. Post

member of the elite Ottoman Muradi dynasty in Tunisia, was the granddaughter of Uthman Dey. Uthman Dey had secured a large hanshir, or estate, worked by khammasa, or sharecroppers. These hanshirs faced lower taxation, as they were appropriated to cultivate areas of the country previously unfarmed. The local government questioned Dey’s use of physical conquest to secure his family’s land, and sought to remove control of it from Aziza Uthmana.

Uthmana responded by creating a waqf with the land. In other words, she gave the land to a charitable cause in the Islamic tradition. In this case, the waqf created a Tunisian hospital, or maristan, named after Uthmana herself, and she became widely associated with the advancement of Tunisian medicine. The waqf also funded a takiya similar to a hospice for the sick and it included large endowments to fund these improvements over time The hospital ...