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Article

George Michael La Rue

preeminent trans-Saharan merchant and caravan leader (khabir) from the Sudanese kingdom of Darfur, was born in Kubayh, the son of Ibrahim ibn ʿAli, a Tirayfi merchant from Kordofan who immigrated to Darfur, and an unknown mother. He was commonly known as khabir ʿAli. In the nineteenth century Darfur was Egypt’s leading supplier of trans-Saharan goods including ivory, ostrich feathers, and slaves. In 1838, when Darfur’s sultan Muhammad Fadl died, young ʿAli ibn Ibrahim had already crossed the Sahara along the route from Kubayh (Darfur’s commercial capital) to Asyut in Upper Egypt, perhaps as part of a caravan led by his mentor, paternal uncle, and future father-in-law, Muhammad Kannun, or one of the lesser Tirayfi caravan leaders. ʿAli ibn Ibrahim allegedly heard the news of the sultan’s death from Muhammad ʿAli, the viceroy of Egypt.

ʿAli married six times and had numerous children His first marriage was probably ...

Article

The triangular shipping route of the slave trade largely formed the banking industry in England. British goods such as textiles, arms, and iron were exchanged for slaves in Africa, which were then transported to the West Indies and traded for sugar, tobacco, cotton, spices, and rum. The triangular trade was a system of immense earnings, as every ship sailed with a profitable cargo. The wealth generated by the triangular trade brought increased affluence to the planters who cultivated the West Indian produce, the merchant capitalists who sold the slaves, and the industrial capitalists who produced the British goods, which in turn demanded new banking facilities and functions.

Primary of these new requirements was insurance Shipowners and slave merchants themselves insured early voyages travelling the triangular trade route However the increasing amount of bills drawn against West Indian merchants and accumulated wealth soon required large scale insurance schemes most often drawn ...

Article

Jonathan Morley and Cassandra Adjei

City with historic links to the slave trade. The first guns to be exported to Africa in 1698 were manufactured in Birmingham, renowned for its metalworking; this triggered a growth in the city's industries, and by 1766, 100,000 guns a year were shipped, as well as other tools of the slave trade: manacles, chains, branding irons, thumbscrews, pincers, muzzles, and instruments for prising open the mouths of recalcitrant slaves to make them eat. Cheaply made flintlock muskets, the guns were often dangerous to their users, and contributed to the militarization of the continent: it has been estimated that 20 million went to Africa by 1907.

The city's Lunar Society (a group of freethinkers and radicals) included members who were vehement abolitionists. Thomas Day, from Lichfield, was co‐author with Joseph Bicknell of the poem The Dying Negro (1773 a famous tract that spoke of a ...

Article

Glasgow  

Jacqueline Jenkinson

One of Britain's leading trading ports between the 17th and 20th centuries. Links between Glasgow and the black world originated through trade. In the late 17th century the merchant guilds of Glasgow added to its flourishing trade with the colonial tobacco plantations in mainland North America by forging trading connections with the West Indies. The Glasgow West India Association was founded in 1807. The Association spent many of its early years defending the slave trade interest. Glasgow was involved in the slave trade, but to a much smaller degree in comparison to the major slaving ports of Bristol, London, and Liverpool. Trade connections and the slave trade led to the creation of a permanent black presence in Glasgow by the late 18th century as black people arrived, settled, and married. One early black Glaswegian was David Cunningham lawfully born to Anthony a black labourer and ...

Article

Most indentured laborers came from India and worked on plantations for the duration of five year contracts in exchange for wages and passage fare Despite some laws designed to protect them the indentured laborers were greatly exploited International humanitarian and labor groups pressured to end the system and Indian laws ...

Article

James Giblin

also known as Muhina Kisabengo Kingo was prominent in the political and commercial life of eastern Tanzania during the middle decades of the nineteenth century The settlement that he established became an important market center of political power and home to several thousand residents In the twentieth century it grew into the major city of Morogoro Situated on the primary trade route between the Indian Ocean and eastern Africa s Great Lakes it was visited by numerous European travelers who wrote admiringly about its stone fortifications finely wrought wooden gates spaciousness and good order In this way Kisabengo came to the attention of a worldwide reading audience Kisabengo s successor was Kingo a son by his wife Kitukira Because Kingo was very young when his father died Morogoro was ruled in the 1870s by Simbamwene a formidable leader and daughter by another wife Makombera Kingo died shortly after assuming office ...

Article

Nana Yaw B. Sapong

domestic slave, slave trader, and merchant prince, was born Adzoviehlo Atiogbe in Agoue in Dahomey (Benin) in 1804 He is also known as Adzoviehlo Atiogbe or Geraldo de Vasconcellos A man of several names he is one of the least understood and most complex characters in modern West African history Geraldo de Vasconcellos probably a Brazilian name given to him by his master in servitude entered into a period of apprenticeship under Brazilian slave trader Cesar Cerquira Lima who had a slave factory warehouse at Vodza in present day Ghana Slaves were kept in the Vodza factory before shipment to various destinations Cesar Cerquira Lima was one of a succession of Brazilian traders who had been establishing factories along the eastern coastline of the Gold Coast in the nineteenth century Geraldo de Vasconcellos became one of Cesar s trusted agents in Anlo who kept the supply of slaves steady ...

Article

H.R. Costello

City in north‐western England which, by the end of the 18th century, had become one of Europe's greatest ports because of its involvement in the slave trade.

1.18th‐century settlers

2.The 1919 riots

3.Black seamen

4.Social and economic disadvantage

Article

Isabelle de Rezende

prominent trader and warlord in present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa, former Zaire), was born between 1855 and 1860 in what today is Congo’s Maniema Province, between the rivers Lomami to the west and Lualaba to the east. Ngongo’s origins are unclear. Most commentators situate him as a Tetela-Kusu, Songye, or Hina (Lomami River people, connected linguistically and culturally to their various neighbors); the preferred spelling of his name by these communities is Ngongo Leteta.

What we know of Ngongo’s life was lived in the context of eastern and central Congo in the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s. Swahili traders, the most famous of whom was Tippu Tip, culturally mixed Muslims from the East African island of Zanzibar, began incursions into the Congo west of the Lualaba. They established the slave and ivory market towns of Kasongo and Nyangwe.

There are different stories about how Ngongo came to Tippu Tip ...

Article

Aaron Myers

Minas Gerais was a densely forested region sparsely inhabited by Tupi and Guarani Indians before the arrival of Europeans in the seventeenth century. At that time explorers and bandeirantes (slave raiders) moved inland from São Paulo in search of Indian slaves as well as precious stones and metals.

Article

Gloria Chuku

Nigerian market trader and businesswoman who wielded enormous influence in the nineteenth-century politics of Lagos and Abeokuta, was born Efunporoye Osuntinubu Olumosa (commonly shortened to Efunroye Tinubu) around 1805 to Owu parents in the Yoruba town of Abeokuta, in present-day western Nigeria. Efunroye learned the art of trading from her mother, Nijeede, who was a food-seller, and from her grandmother, Osunsola, who dealt in leaves, herbs, roots, and tree bark. She married an Owu man with whom she had two sons. Shortly after, her mother and her husband both passed away. As a widow, she started trading in leaves and tree bark. She met and married Adele in 1833, who was an exiled oba or king of Lagos She followed him to Badagry where she established a lucrative enterprise in salt and tobacco which she exchanged for slaves from Abeokuta Through commercial associations with Brazilian slave dealers and other ...

Article

Elizabeth Heath

Born Hamed bin Muhammed el-Murjebi in Zanzibar, Tippu Tip began his career at the age of twelve, when he began to accompany his father on short trading trips. In 1850 he set out on his own Within fifteen years he built one of the most extensive trade empires in Central Africa Trading slaves and ivory for firearms Tippu Tip s large caravans also served as his personal armies and hunting bands He accumulated incredible wealth and power expanding his territorial control through raids as well as deals with regional chiefs and other traders By the early 1880s he was the most powerful trader in Central and East Africa Tippu Tip s caravans carried goods between Zanzibar on the east coast of Africa and Kasongo on the west coast of the Lualaba river His bands of followers hunted elephants and raided villages for slaves in Central African forests Many of ...

Article

Isabelle de Rezende

Zanzibari merchant, was certainly the most famous and successful of the nineteenth-century Swahili merchants (sometimes called “Arabs”) from the East African island of Zanzibar. From the 1860s to 1890 he led caravans into the African hinterland in search of ivory and slaves establishing market towns and trading posts at Kisangani from the 1880s called Stanley Falls on the Congo and at Kasongo on the Lualaba upper Congo Tippu Tip established a cultural political and commercial zone of influence known as Maniema roughly located between Lakes Tanganyika and Kivu to the east and the Lomami River to the west The caravans of Tippu Tip arrived in eastern Congo shortly before Belgian King Leopold II s declaration of sovereignty for the Congo Free State CFS in that region While Zanzibari and Europeans overlapped and accommodated one another for a few years in the 1880s Zanzibari and CFS commercial and political interests ...

Article

Stephen Behrendt

From the 1520s to the 1860s an estimated eleven to twelve million African men, women, and children were forcibly embarked on European vessels for a life of slavery in the Western Hemisphere. Many more Africans were captured or purchased in the interior of the continent but a large number died before reaching the coast. About nine to ten million Africans survived the Atlantic crossing to be purchased by planters and traders in the New World, where they worked principally as slave laborers in plantation economies requiring a large work force. African peoples were transported from numerous coastal outlets from the Senegal River in West Africa and hundreds of trading sites along the coast as far south as Benguela (Angola), and from ports in Mozambique in southeast Africa In the New World slaves were sold in markets as far north as New England and as far south as ...

Article

M. W. Daly

Sudanese merchant prince, was a Jaʾli Arab born at al-Jayli on the right bank of the main Nile about 25 miles (40 kilometers) north of Khartoum. He rose to prominence as a trader and virtually independent ruler in the hinterlands of Egypt’s African empire in the 1860s–1870s.

Although the northern Sudanese had engaged in long-distance trade before the Turco-Egyptian conquest of 1820–1821 the colonial regime s policies especially of taxing agriculture drove many young men from the land and into commerce Of these al Zubayr emerged as the most famous and formidable accompanying indeed preceding the Egyptian flag into the Bahr al Ghazal and beyond to dominate the trade in ivory and slaves Egypt prompted by Europe and increasingly employing European agents was never able to suppress the slave trade which matched demand from northern Sudan Egypt and beyond with supply from as far as central Africa Al Zubayr ...