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Allen J. Fromherz

fourth of the Bahri dynasty of Mamluk sultans of Egypt, was born a slave. His full name was al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din al-Salihi al-Bundukdari. Although his date of birth is uncertain, most scholars agree he was born around 1233 far away from Egypt in the steppes of the Kipchak Turkish nomads. Before being purchased by the sultan, he took the name of his first immediate master, a relatively minor character named Aydakin Bundukdar. After demonstrating exceptional qualities as a youngster, Baybars was purchased by the Ayyubid sultan and successor to Saladin, Malik Salih. He started as only one of many fellow Kipchak slaves who served the Ayyubids. In fact, there were so many Kipchak soldiers in Egypt that it stimulated the creation of Kipchak-Arabic dictionaries such as the thirteenth-century Codex Cumanicus Soon after being purchased by Malik Salih he would have been subjected to the code of strict military ...

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Ness Creighton

ninth Mamluk sultan of Egypt, was born in Cairo at Qalʿat al-Jabal to a mother of Mongol origin. He was the youngest son of Sultan Qalawun. He is also known as al-Nasir Muhammad (al-Malik al-Nasir Nasir al-Din Muhammad ben Qalawun). One of his brothers would come to be Sultan al-Ashraf Khalil, who would reign from 1290 until his assassination in December 1293 Upon his brother s death al Nasir was installed as sultan while still a child with Zayn ad Din Kitbugha as regent and Emir Sanjar al Shujaʿi as vizier As such al Nasir was only nominally considered the ruler with Kitbugha and al Shujaʿi acting as the major political forces and rulers of Egypt during this time This was complicated by the fact that the two men were fierce rivals and their conflict would lead eventually to the Burji Mamluks with whom al Shujaʿi was allied planning ...