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Walter Clarke

nationalist leader and first prime minister of independent Djibouti, was born in the Mabla mountain area north of Obock, Afar. Ahmed Dini Ahmed was fired by an intense sense of social justice and fairness and worked at one time or another with all of Djibouti’s early preindependence leaders with the objective of facilitating an independent government in which all ethnic groups would work together for the betterment of all citizens. The failure of his close friendship with Hassan Gouled Aptidon immediately after independence was a personal blow to both of them, but was probably inevitable in two such committed but divergent individuals. Ahmed Dini had a political career roughly parallel to that of Hassan Gouled. He completed his primary school in Djibouti and then worked as a nurse’s aide. He became interested in politics at a young age. In 1959 after Gouled had been elected to the French National ...

Article

Jeremy Rich

first female prime minister of Senegal, was born in the coastal city of Saint Louis, Senegal. She came from a family of lawyers, including her father, one brother who worked for the Supreme Court of Senegal, and another brother who received an advanced law degree, became a professor of international law, and eventually became the head of the University of Dakar. Boye herself attended primary school in her home city before graduating from the Lycée Faidherbe secondary school and enrolling in an undergraduate law degree program at the University of Dakar in 1963 She then studied law at the Centre National d Études Judiciaries CNEJ in Paris Once she finished her studies in France she returned to Senegal and began to work as an assistant prosecutor for the government Boye became an assistant judge in a court at Dakar and later rose to be president of the Senegalese Court ...

Article

Dag Henrichsen

Namibia’s first prime minister (1990–2002), was born on 3 August 1941 in the Grootfontein district of the Otjozondjupa region in central Namibia. He trained as a teacher at the Augustineum Training College in Okahandja between 1958 and 1961, where he became a student activist against the apartheid politics of the South African administration. He then also joined the newly founded South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) of Namibia, soon experiencing harassment by the South African police and thus fleeing into exile to Botswana in late 1962. Here he became the assistant to SWAPO’s representative in Francistown until 1964, when he was granted a scholarship to study in the United States. Initially he attended Temple University (1964–1966); he later graduated with an MA in international relations from the New School of Social Research in New York.

Simultaneously he became a SWAPO petitioner to the UN until 1971 at ...

Article

Patricia Glinton-Meicholas

was born on 4 August 1947 in impoverished circumstances in Pine Ridge, Grand Bahama, to Isabella MacIntosh and Jerome Ingraham, a stevedore. When Hubert was 3 years old, Isabella (“Dama” to her son) married Sherwin Laroda. The couple migrated to Nassau, capital of The Bahamas, leaving the boy in Cooper’s Town, North Abaco, to be raised by his maternal grandparents.

Elizabeth Cooper Cornish, Ingraham’s grandmother, greatly influenced his character and choice of profession. She was his valued counselor until she died in 1998. Ingraham dedicated his 2012 election campaign to Cornish and acknowledged his debt to her in a speech in the aftermath It is impossible for me to reflect on my life of service without speaking of my grandmother Mama Lizzie Her dream and faith in The Bahamas her belief in my ability to achieve and her dedication to raising me to be honest hardworking and loyal ...

Article

first prime minister of the Republic of the Congo (later Democratic Republic of the Congo), was born 25 July 1925 in Onalua a small village in Kasai Province Belgian Congo His parents belonged to the small Tetela ethnic group known for its resistance to Belgian colonial domination which in Onalua was well anchored and brutally asserted Lumumba was a curious even audacious child with a sharp intelligence He did not allow himself to be ruled by adults or his comrades and was remembered as a leader always ready to defend his friends His assertive temperament distinguished him but also got him into trouble for he could not succeed in an environment like the colonial Congo where docility passed for a primary virtue An autodidact he was shaped by neither family school nor religion he observed everything keenly imposing himself on his society and surprising above all the Belgian colonial ...

Article

Henry Kam Kah

anticolonial politician, Pan-Africanist, socialist, and first president of independent Ghana, was born Francis Nwia Kofi Nkrumah in Nkroful, Nzima village, in Britain’s Gold Coast colony (now in southwest Ghana). There is some dispute about the exact date of his birth. In the Akan tradition, Kwame is a day name indicating a male born on a Saturday, and Nkrumah notes in his autobiography (1957) that his family believed he was born on a Saturday in the middle of September, most likely the eighteeenth.The priest who baptized him, however, recorded his date of birth as 21 September 1909 which was probably the date of his baptism For most of his life Nkrumah used 21 September as his birth date that was the least line of resistance officially as his baptismal certificate served as his birth certificate His parents were Kofi Ngonloma of the Asona clan a goldsmith and Elizabeth Nyanibah of ...

Article

Jeremy Rich

Congolese politician, was born on 10 November 1919 in Musumba, Belgian Congo. His father, Joseph Tshombe, a member of the largest Lunda ethnic community and one of the most prosperous African businessmen in the entire colony, sent Tshombe to an American Methodist missionary school. Tshombe later recalled how his father had bought a 1928 Chevrolet automobile, thus making him the first Congolese man to own his own car. In school, Tshombe learned to follow in his father’s footsteps through his training in accounting and mathematics at the Methodist teachers’ college at Kanene. Tshombe also received a law degree through taking correspondence classes. In 1924 he married his wife Ruth, a daughter of Mwata Yamvo Ditende Yawa Nawezi III, the traditional ruler of the Lunda Kingdom. Eventually, they had ten children.

Tshombe supported his large family by establishing a chain of retail stores in Elisabethville the capital of the southern Congolese ...