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folk artist, community activist, and Mardi Gras Indian leader, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Alfred Montana, “Big Chief” of the Yellow Pocahontas, a leading Mardi Gras Indian organization, and Alice Herrere Montana, both natives of New Orleans. When he was young, one of his cousins nicknamed him Tootie, and the name stuck. Masking as Mardi Gras Indians ran deep in the Montana family. Tootie was a third-generation black Indian leader. His great-uncle Becate Batiste was the legendary founding Big Chief of the Creole Wild West, the city's first and oldest masking Indian society; his father Alfred Montana was a famous leader of the Yellow Pocahontas, which was an offshoot of the Creole Wild West; but Tootie eventually surpassed both by far in terms of craftsmanship, influence, and fame.

The Mardi Gras Indian culture developed as an expression of black resistance ...


Jonathon L. Earle

prominent chief and- historian of Buganda, was born in former Ssingo county, in central Uganda. His mother’s name was Nyakanzana, and his father Zakaria Ssensalire was an important Elephant clan (Njovu) leader and appointed chief by Kabaka (King) Muteesa I. At approximately the age of 12, Mukasa was placed by his father as a page (omugalagala) at the king’s palace, where his aunt was also one of the king’s many wives.

Mukasa s appointment to the royal palace coincided with Muteesa s early conversion to Islam As with other pages Mukasa studied Arabic and learned Islamic prayers and Qurʾanic texts by memory Not unlike his youthful colleagues Mukasa struggled to differentiate between Islamic and Christian teaching Reflecting on this perplexity Mukasa wrote I never knew at that time that there was any religious difference between the Arabs and Europeans Mukasa increasingly devoted his time and energy ...


Jack Hogan

Paramount Chief of the Barotse Nation, was born in Likapai in what is now Zambia's Western Province in 1871. He was the first son of Lubosi Lewanika (c.1842–1916) and his first wife Ma-Litia. Prior to his accession to the throne, he was simply known as Litia. In 1883 attended the short-lived school established by the pioneer Scottish missionary Frederick Stanley Arnot (1858–1914) and fled with his father during the short rebellion against his rule between 1884 and 1885. In 1887 Litia attended the newly established school of François Coillard (1838–1904), leader of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society (PEMS) mission to the kingdom. His father made him chief of Sesheke in 1891, a post he retained until he succeeded him in 1916. His accession had been assured in 1912 through an agreement made by Lewanika with the support of the British South ...