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In revisiting the history of Belize, Shoman observes that on the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of emancipation of 1888, White-Creoles chose to reenact the battle of St. George's Caye. While condemning the African slave workers’ riot of 1894, which attempted to disrupt the order of things in the settlement, Woods had surmised in his Clarion tabloid that:

What a lesson in loyalty and confidence it would constantly be to those very people if their minds turned back vividly to that September day (of 1798) at St. George's Caye when the sturdy Baymen masters and slaves (emphasis added) willingly stood forth shoulder to shoulder to shed their blood to defend the government and protect those they served

(Shoman: 120).

Present day Belize is bounded on the north by Mexico the west and south by Guatemala and on the east by the Caribbean Sea An ongoing border ...



Nick J. Sciullo

The United States' northernmost state has always had a low black population, one of the lowest in the United States. The 2000 U.S. Census lists Alaska as having 21,787 black residents who make up 3.5 percent of its population. This is likely as much an effect of geographical boundaries as societal forces. After the Civil War, blacks migrated to Alaska in search of new economic opportunities; they became seafarers and worked in the whaling and fur industries and were better able to find meaningful work than many of those who stayed in the American South. The Alaska Gold Rush in the 1890s brought many from the contiguous United States to Alaska, African Americans among them, and many stayed—some for profit and some for adventure's sake.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the building of the Alaska Highway in February 1942 and more than three thousand black engineers worked on the ...


Casey-Leininger Charles F.

Avondale is a neighborhood of the city of Cincinnati located northeast of the city's central business district. The 2010 US Census reported that Avondale had a population of 12,466 of which 89 percent identified as African American only, 7 percent identified as white only, and the remainder reported some other race or combination of races. Between about 1945 and 1965 the neighborhood was the scene of a massive population shift that saw its middle- and upper middle-class white population replaced by middle- and lower-income African Americans. During this period the neighborhood also became an important center of the city's African American cultural and political life.

Today Avondale is one of the poorest and most distressed neighborhoods in the city. Its poverty rate, calculated from the US Census Bureau's 2005–2009 American Community Survey ACS was 37 5 percent and 44 percent of its working age population had no employment In ...


Leaving North Carolina was not an easy decision in any era for black migrants. Migration was about leaving family, friends, the farm, church—everything familiar. North Carolina was not a major slaveholding state. While cotton states to the South featured large plantations, the Central Piedmont of North Carolina, where tobacco was the main crop, did not. In 1860 nearly 70 percent of the slaveholding families owned fewer than ten slaves, and 67 percent of white families held no slaves at all. Small farmers were the largest single class of whites in the state and, when necessary, they hired free blacks. Only Maryland and Virginia had larger free black populations. North Carolina free blacks, unlike those in other states, could own property and transfer land in their wills.

Free blacks were discouraged from owning slaves Black slave ownership was considered dangerous because it challenged the legitimacy of the slave system In any ...


Eric R. Jackson

By the 1970s Bond Hill had become the destination for thousands of local African American residents. Just like their non–African American counterparts, persons of color moved to this region, which was located just a thirty-minute drive from downtown Cincinnati, Ohio (also known as the “Queen City”), in a quest for better jobs and a higher quality of life. This process was not easy or simple. It required, in some ways, a dramatic transformation in migration patterns and racial attitudes, as well as both the economic and residential patterns of the community. Nonetheless this conversion took place and was championed by thousands of African American Cincinnatians. But during the 1930s this change would have not been predicated so soon after the establishment of Bond Hill as a community entity.

Gradually between the late 1930s and the late 1950s thousands of Cincinnatians began to move into regions outside the central city business ...


Eric Montgomery

“Paris is lovely. It is beautiful it is lush and wonderful. I would gladly trade it all for a corner at 41st Street & Central Ave” —John Kinloch

The United States is a nation of movement, with the population expanding and contracting in regions as a result of technological, societal, and economic changes. With each significant change came opportunities for mobility both socially and geographically—there was no time that this was truer than during World War II. As the war continued, defense production in the United States grew exponentially and there was a surge in need for labor in automobile, rubber, and steel factories. As a result, there was a second great migration as more than 5 million African Americans migrated from the South to the Northeast, Midwest, and West in search of work.

Los Angeles was given more than $11 billion in war contracts and saw its African American ...


Debra C. Smith

Like the story of many southern cities, Charlotte, North Carolina has endured its portion of racial inequity, civil rights activism, and violent acts surrounding segregation efforts, But Charlotte, the Queen City, the largest city in North Carolina has been and remains an alcove for African American experience steeped in memory and now modern familiarity. Charlotte is a source of progress and pride for African Americans in the city who lean on historical strength to continue to develop political power, economic resources, and educational aspirations.


Kathy Chater

Most work done on Black people and the law in the 18th century concentrates on the handful of cases in which the question of the legality of slavery in England and Wales was brought to court, most notably the Somerset case which led to the landmark Mansfield judgment Black ...


Annell Smith

As with other aspects of British society, black people have had a long and sometimes difficult and contentious relationship with the criminal justice system.

1.Historical background

2.The Empire Windrush and after


Before the arrival of Spanish explorers to the region in the sixteenth century, the Tongva Native Americans built between fifty and one hundred villages in the Greater Los Angeles and northern Orange County areas, at least three of which are within the present-day borders of Long Beach: Tevaaxa’anga, an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, and Ahwaanga and Povuu’nga, which were coastal settlements. In 1784 Spanish king Carlos III awarded Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto a land grant of approximately 300,000 acres (reduced to 167,000 in 1790 because a dispute with Mission San Gabriel Time and descendants divided Rancho Los Nietos into six parcels including the approximately 28 000 acre Rancho Los Alamitos and the approximately 27 000 acre Rancho Los Cerritos which was eventually bought for $20 000 by the former Maine residents and sheep raising principals of Flint Bixby Company Flint Bixby Co principal Llewellyn Bixby along ...


Jane Poyner

While there are cases in earlier periods where we have some evidence about the education of individual black people (such as that of Francis Barber) or members of particular professions (e.g. doctors a more general picture only begins to emerge with the growing black presence from the middle ...

Primary Source

Civil rights lawyer Eleanor Holmes Norton (b. 1937) began serving as the District of Columbia’s lone US Representative in 1990. From this platform, she intended to bring public debate about the District’s non-voting status before Congress. Her efforts have brought her national attention, including a series of appearances on the satirical television program The Colbert Report. In a 2014 speech on the House floor, transcribed below, Norton connects her efforts with the Civil Rights Movement, pointing out the irony of how Washington was the first city where the Emancipation Proclamation was enforced, and yet continues to lack a vote in Congress, and must have all local laws—constitutional or not—approved by the federal government.


Steven J. Niven

lieutenant‐governor of South Carolina and the leading nineteenth century African American freemason, was born in Philadelphia to parents whose names have not been recorded. His father was a free person of color from Haiti and his mother was a white Englishwoman. Gleaves was educated in Philadelphia and New Orleans, and as a young man worked as a steward on steamboats along the Mississippi River.

Gleaves first came to prominence as an organizer of Masonic lodges in Pennsylvania and Ohio. While black freemasonry had gained a foothold under Prince Hall in Massachusetts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, by the 1840s, Pennsylvania was the center of black fraternalism, and Gleaves would become one of the Order's leading evangelists before the Civil War. In 1846 the year he was first initiated as a brother mason the Pennsylvania Grand Lodge of Prince Hall Masons appointed Gleaves a District Deputy Grand ...


Anthony Aiello

The Gulf War began on 2 August 1990 when the military forces of Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait and defeated in less than a week the minimal resistance that Kuwait's military was able to muster. Most of the Kuwaiti royal family escaped to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government in exile and were thus able to protect a great deal of Kuwaiti wealth from the otherwise wholesale robbery almost immediately undertaken by the Iraqi conquerors.

Hussein's reasons for invading Kuwait were not new. Iraq had long held that Kuwait was its Nineteenth Province and that the kingdom was no more than a creation of the British mandate authorities following World War I to ensure a reliable source of oil from a protectorate state. Additionally, Iraq wanted Kuwait to forgive the enormous debt that Iraq had taken on during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988 forgiveness ...


Jan Batiste Adkins

The theme of traveling to California the continent s end in search of new opportunities is prevalent throughout San Francisco s history as well as the history of other California cities Early settlers of the 1840s both black and white heard the call to go west in search of gold a business or land for a new home Although California was considered a free state a free state did not necessarily mean black settlers were welcomed Many black settlers in San Francisco who lived as free men and women fought to overcome harsh odds of discrimination to build a viable community Even in the free state not all black settlers in communities in or near San Francisco lived in freedom Many plantation owners brought slaves from the South to pan for gold and work in the mines and then returned to their plantations with their slaves Several of those who ...


Stephen L. Klineberg

In 1836, six months after Sam Houston's victory over the Mexican army, a settlement was founded in a hot, flat, swampy, mosquito-infested prairie south of Buffalo Bayou. During the ensuing 175 years, this small town on a barely navigable bayou on the Texas frontier grew into America's fourth largest city, largely by attracting a continual influx of new migrants attracted by the economic opportunities it embodied (Thomas and Murray, 1991).

The end of the Civil War brought the first major influx of African Americans to Houston. After June 19, 1865, when Union soldiers landed in Galveston with news that the war had ended and the enslaved were free, thousands of newly liberated blacks came to Houston to seek a better life. They were to build “Freedmen's Town” into a thriving center of black business and cultural life in the city's Fourth Ward (Bullard, 1987 That historic ...


Donna Young

Although not the strongest or deadliest storm to have struck the United States, Hurricane Katrina was the most destructive and costly, damaging coastal communities in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and devastating more than 90,000 square miles (235,000 square kilometers) of land. Its import, however, is best measured by its contribution to the public discourse on the endemic racial and income disparities found in the early twenty-first century in New Orleans, one of the most famous cities in the United States.


Heather Marie Stur

The 2000 census reported that nearly 2 million African Americans lived in the state of Illinois. The state's black population had increased nearly 14 percent since the 1990 census. In many ways the story of African Americans in Illinois is the story of African Americans in Chicago. However, significant moments in black history also took place outside the state's largest city. The experiences of African Americans in Illinois demonstrate, among other issues, struggles for employment and housing rights, and black leaders have risen to prominence in leading the struggles.


Muhammad Anwar

1.History and demography

2.Political responses to immigration

3.White reactions to immigration

4.Current immigration trends and debates


Around the turn of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of blacks arrived in the United States from Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Social, economic, and political factors were paramount in driving these black immigrants to American shores. Although blacks came from many regions, Jamaicans, Haitians, and Africans were the most prominent. Construction of the Panama Canal in Central America attracted black laborers from all over the Caribbean, but most came from Jamaica. Altogether, between 1904 and 1914—the years that the United States sponsored the building of the canal—as many as 90,000 Afro-Jamaicans were recruited and worked on the interoceanic passageway. Approximately 121,000 Jamaicans left Jamaica between 1902 and 1931, seeking jobs. Overall, one estimate is that between 1890 and 1930 some 350 000 blacks left the West Indies With the completion of the Panama Canal and some decrease in sugarcane production in Cuba thousands of ...