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Jeffrey O. Ogbar and Jeffrey O. G.

Black nationalism is the belief system that endorses the creation of a black nation state It also supports the establishment of black controlled institutions to meet the political social educational economic and spiritual needs of black people independent of nonblacks Celebration of African ancestry and territorial separatism are essential components of black nationalism Though not fully developed into a cogent system of beliefs the impulse of black nationalism finds its earliest expression in the resistance of enslaved Africans to the Atlantic slave trade from the sixteenth century Various groups of Africans who felt no particular organic connection as black people were forced into a new racialized identity in a brutal and dehumanizing process of enslavement The transportation and forced amalgamation of hundreds of different African nationalities resulted in Creolized communities in the Americas enslaved Africans revolted and established new societies which functioned autonomously on the outskirts of colonial towns and ...

Article

Elizabeth Heath

The Maji Maji revolt, or Maji Maji Rebellion, was initiated by the stateless peasant societies of the Matumbi region and grew into a mass uprising against German Colonial Rule. Since 1891, when the German East Africa Company had taken control of what is now mainland Tanzania, these societies had been subjected to taxes, compulsory labor service, and compulsory cultivation of export crops such as coffee, sisal, and rubber. In 1902 German governor Count Adolf von Götzen tightened the company’s grip by forcing Africans throughout much of the colony to grow cotton, a crop that is both difficult to grow and hard on the soil. Resentment grew among the Matumbi and other rural people, especially after the company began imprisoning noncompliant chiefs, such as the Kisangire leader Digalu Kibasila. In late July 1905 Matumbi laborers began uprooting cotton plants on a nearby plantation, effectively declaring war on the Germans.

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Article

Jeremy Rich

rebel leader and politician, was born in 1922 in the village of Kaheti in the South Tetu region of Nyeri district, located in central Kenya. His father, Itote, was a successful famer and his mother was Wamuyu. Like most residents of Nyeri, Itote's family belonged to the Kikuyu ethnic community. Itote began to attend a Church of Scotland mission school at Kiangure in 1929, but his father opposed this education on the grounds it took the boy away from farming. In 1933 Itote continued his primary education at Mihuti school. He then left his hometown for the Kenyan capital of Nairobi in 1939 because he could not progress far in his education and was frustrated with his family. There he worked briefly in a factory before starting a vegetable business with several friends. In 1940 he married Leah Wambura. The produce-selling venture closed in 1941 To make ...