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Jeremy Rich

first female prime minister of Senegal, was born in the coastal city of Saint Louis, Senegal. She came from a family of lawyers, including her father, one brother who worked for the Supreme Court of Senegal, and another brother who received an advanced law degree, became a professor of international law, and eventually became the head of the University of Dakar. Boye herself attended primary school in her home city before graduating from the Lycée Faidherbe secondary school and enrolling in an undergraduate law degree program at the University of Dakar in 1963 She then studied law at the Centre National d Études Judiciaries CNEJ in Paris Once she finished her studies in France she returned to Senegal and began to work as an assistant prosecutor for the government Boye became an assistant judge in a court at Dakar and later rose to be president of the Senegalese Court ...


Known as “The Iron Lady of the Caribbean,” Mary Charles was the first female prime minister in the Caribbean and one of a few black women to serve as a head of state. She was born in Pointe Michel and attended school in Dominica and Grenada before enrolling at the University of Toronto, where she received a law degree in 1946. After further studies in London, she returned to Dominica in 1949 and became the island's first female lawyer.

After practicing law for almost two decades, Charles became an outspoken critic of the government of Edward Oliver Le Blanc, and more specifically the Seditious and Undesirable Publications Act passed by his government. In 1968, she founded the Dominica Freedom Party. In 1980, she became prime minister of Dominica, a position that she held until 1995. In 1983 Charles was elected chairperson of the Organization ...


Frances B. Henderson

Mozambican politician and prime minister from 2004 to 2010, was born in Tete Province, Mozambique. Diogo held one of the most powerful positions in Mozambique, and was among the first women to break through the gender barrier into the upper echelons of political office in Africa. She has also been a tireless advocate of accountability and good governance in southern Africa. Diogo is widely credited with facilitating economic growth and development in Mozambique.

Diogo was raised in Tete City and attended school there until she was fourteen years old. She attended high school in the capital city of Maputo at Maputo Commercial Institute, and she then went on to earn a bachelor’s degree in finance from Eduardo Mondlane University, also in Maputo. In 1983 Diogo went to London to continue her studies in financial economics at the University of London, where she earned a master’s degree in 1992 ...


Richard A. Bradshaw

prime minister (1974–1976) of the Central African Republic (CAR), prominent business leader, and women’s rights activist, was born in Bangui, then in the territory of Ubangi-Shari in French Equatorial Africa, in 1925. She belonged to the Mbaka (Ngbaka) ethnic group from the Lobaye region in southwestern CAR. Although she attended elementary school, she never became proficient in French and so almost always spoke in the CAR’s national language, Sango, in which she delivered impassioned speeches at political rallies. Domitien married the European owner of a coffee plantation, and after he passed away, she married Jean Baka, a mayor in the Lobaye region. She became a wealthy businesswoman who owned plantations and conducted commerce in cloth and agricultural products. In the early 1950s she joined the Mouvement d Évolution Sociale d Afrique Noire MESAN Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa and supported Barthélemy Boganda and President David ...


Alexandre Hatungimana

prime minister of Burundi from June 1993 to February 1994, was born Sylvie Ntigashira in Mugoyi in the province of Bujumbura on 24 November 1953. After primary and secondary studies with the sisters of the Ijenda parish, she attended the University of Burundi (Faculty of Economic Sciences), from which she graduated in 1979 with a degree directed toward banking credit. In 1990 she obtained a Diplôme d’études supérieures (DES) in banking and finance at the Centre International de Formation de la Profession Bancaire in Paris. The same year, on returning to her country, she was hired at the Banque Centrale BRB (Banque de la République de Burundi) where she directed the department of research and statistics (1990–1991), the focal point of the IMF and the World Bank in Burundi. From 1991 to 1993 she maintained the Programme d’Ajustement Structurel (PAS) attached to the prime ministry. In 1973 ...


Eric Young

Sylvie Kinigi rose to prominence as a commercial banker and senior officer of Burundi's structural adjustment program. After Melchior Ndadaye, an ethnic Hutu, was elected to the presidency in June 1993, he appointed Kinigi, a Tutsi married to a Hutu, prime minister in an act of national reconciliation and as part of a policy of appointing women to top posts. Kinigi and Agathe Uwilingiyimana, the premier of neighboring Rwanda, served simultaneously as the first female prime ministers in Africa. Kinigi, a member of the former ruling Union for National Progress (UPRONA) Party, was a political moderate, but her leadership was quickly eclipsed by events beyond her control.

In October 1993 after a military coup killed President Ndadaye and threw Burundi into violence Kinigi sought asylum in the French embassy Her appeals for international support convinced the military to return to its barracks allowing Kinigi to ...


Gerhard Seibert

, economist, politician, and former prime minister of São Tomé e Príncipe, was born Maria das Neves Ceita Batista in São Tomé on 11 July 1958. She married Carlos Quaresma Batista de Sousa, with whom she has two daughters. Neves graduated in economics with a specialization in finance and crediting. Thereafter she became a civil servant in the ministry of finance and attended several training courses in macroeconomic management and banking. From 1999 to 2001 she was minister of economics, commerce, agriculture, fisheries, and tourism (a post that her husband had occupied in previous governments) in the government of Prime Minister Guilherme Posser da Costa (Movimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe/Partido Social Democrata; MLSTP/PSD). While minister of economy in March 1999 she was embarrassed by her husband who was dismissed from his post of governor of the Central Bank of São Tomé and Príncipe BCSTP due ...