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Ghirmai Negash

Eritrean Tigrinya-language writer, historian, translator, linguist, and professor of African languages, was born and grew up in Yeha, an ancient historical village in Tigray, the northernmost Ethiopian province bordering Eritrea. Yeha is remarkable for its unique and early archaeological sites, as well as for its proximity to and historical connections with the well-known city of Axum, which formed the center of the Axumite kingdom during the reign of the Queen of Sheba, and still remains Ethiopia’s oldest cultural center. Giyorgis is considered one of Ethiopia’s and Eritrea’s most important intellectuals; he lived and wrote during the Italian colonial era in Eritrea. He is considered by many the true founder of secular, modern African literature in Tigrinya.

The consciousness of precolonial history evident in Yeha had a lasting influence on Giyorgis s imagination affecting everything he wrote from literature to history Another important influence on Giyorgis s formation as a native ...


Katharine Rodier

poet and translator, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the daughter of Melvin M. Nelson, a Tuskegee Airman and serviceman in the U.S. Air Force, and Johnnie Mitchell, a teacher. Moving frequently because of her father's career, she attended school in several states and began composing poetry while still in grade school. After earning a BA in English in 1968 from the University of California, Davis, she earned an MA in English from the University of Pennsylvania in 1970, serving as a lay associate at Cornell University's Lutheran Campus Ministry between 1969 and 1970. Also in 1970 Nelson married Erdmann F. Waniek and subsequently began teaching English in Oregon at Lane Community College and at Reed College. The next year she taught at Nørre Nissum Seminarium in Denmark, and in 1973 she became an assistant professor of English at St. Olaf College in Minnesota. In 1978 ...


Muniz Sodré was born Muniz Sodré de Araújo Cabral in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Sodré's grandmother was a member of the Tupinambá indigenous tribe that lived in the recôncavo region of the state of Bahia. His grandfather was a Nagô (or Yoruba) African who came from what the Portuguese called the Mina Coast (at that time the Kingdom of Dahomey, now Benin) in West Africa. Sodré graduated from the city of Salvador's Universidade Federal da Bahia in 1964. While studying law there, he also worked as a journalist for the Jornal da Bahia newspaper.

Sodré moved to Rio De Janeiro to develop his career as a journalist but in 1964 a military dictatorship was established in Brazil, so he left for France. At Sorbonne University in Paris, he studied sociology of information until 1968 Returning to Brazil Sodré wrote for several newspapers and magazines ...