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veteran of the strike of 1954, and leader of the Black pride movement in Honduras, also known as Santos Centeno García, was born on 3 February 1933 in Trujillo in the Colón department. His mother was Juana Ruperta García Castro, a Garifuna, born in Trujillo and a housewife, and his father was Santos Pio Centeno Velázquez, a Garifuna, born in Sangrelaya and a worker at the Standard Fruit Company. He married María Cruz Gotay Mejia, with whom he fathered eight children.

Garifuna people or Black Caribs are the result of the encounter between fugitive African slaves who arrived to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines with the wreck of two Spanish ships in 1635, Maroons, fugitive African slaves from neighboring islands, local Indian Arawaks, and Caribs. In 1976 a revolt took place in Saint Vincent promoted by Victor Hughes a radical French colonial administrator and controlled by British ...


Efraim Barak

Egyptian intellectual, writer, reformer, and lecturer of philosophy, was born in Cairo on 13 February 1935. His father was a professional musician. In the early 1950s, he joined the Muslim Brothers and was active in student politics at the University of Cairo, where he studied philosophy. In 1956, after earning his BA, he moved to Paris, where he continued his studies at the Sorbonne. In 1966, after receiving his PhD in philosophy, he returned to Cairo where, after a year, he began teaching at the local university. At the same time, he translated into Arabic some of the works of Western philosophers, such as Spinoza, Lessing, and Sartre, and published several articles in the journals al-Katib (The Writer) and al-Fikr al-Muʿasi (Modern Thought).

From 1971 to 1975, Hanafi worked as an external lecturer at Temple University in Philadelphia. From 1979 to 1980 he supervised the ...


Lisa Clayton Robinson

Born to former slaves in Lowndes County, Alabama, Elizabeth Ross Haynes became a pioneering urban sociologist. Haynes graduated valedictorian of the State Normal School (now Alabama State University) in 1900. She received an A.B. from Fisk University in 1903, and later received an M.A. in sociology from Columbia University in 1923.

After graduation from Fisk, Haynes taught school and worked for segregated branches of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). In 1910, she married George Haynes, a sociologist and cofounder of the National Urban League; their son was born in 1912. After her marriage, Haynes continued to work in unsalaried positions.

From 1918 to 1922, Haynes worked for the U.S. Department of Labor, and from 1920 to 1922 she served as domestic service secretary for the U S Employment Service Throughout her career Haynes was especially concerned with black women ...


Thea Gallo Becker

Addie D. Waites Hunton was born in Norfolk, Virginia, the daughter of Jesse Waites, an oyster and shipping business owner, and Adelina Lawton. Addie attended public school and belonged to the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME). Her mother died when she was a young child, and she was sent to live with an aunt in Boston. She attended Boston Girls' Latin (High) School and, in 1889, became the first African American woman to graduate from the Spencerian College of Commerce in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She taught for a year in Portsmouth, Virginia, before moving to Normal, Alabama, to teach and later become principal of the State Normal and Agricultural College.

In 1893 Addie Waites returned to Norfolk, where on July 19 she married William Alphaeus Hunton of Chatham, Ontario. He had moved to Norfolk in 1888 to become the first African American professional youth ...


John Ernest

educator, author, social theorist, and activist, was born Ronald McKinley Everett on a farm in Parsonsburg, Maryland, the youngest of fourteen children of Addie and Levi Everett, a Baptist minister. The family's house was supplied by the landowner, who allowed the family half of the produce they harvested. Ronald spent his early years helping on the farm, and he excelled in school, graduating from Salisbury High School in 1958. After moving to Los Angeles, California, in 1959, he attended Los Angeles City College. By 1964 he had earned both a BA and an MA in Political Science and African Studies from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

As a student, Everett met Malcolm X whose influence on Everett s thinking helped to turn the young man to social activism Everett began to pursue a doctoral degree but he stepped away from ...


A. Kia Sinclair

creator of the holiday of Kwanzaa. Maulana Ndabezitha Karenga was born Ronald McKinley Everett in Parsonsburg, Maryland. Karenga left Maryland in 1958 and relocated to Los Angeles. While in Los Angeles, Karenga developed into a key intellectual, political, and cultural figure. Karenga attended Los Angeles City College, where he became the first black to serve as student-body president. He received his BA and MA degrees in political science and African studies from the University of California, Los Angeles. Karenga received two PhDs, the first in political science from the United States International University (1976) and the second in social ethics from the University of Southern California (1993). Karenga was also awarded an honorary PhD from South Africa's University of Durban-Westville.

In the 1960s with the Black Power movement on the rise African Americans were asserting their blackness by sporting Afros and dashikis and by abandoning the ...


Karen Beasley Young

television and radio personality, political commentator, author, and social advocate, was born in Gulfport, Mississippi, the eldest of ten children, four of whom were adopted, to Emory G. Smiley, a noncommissioned officer in the United States Air Force, and Joyce M. Smiley, a missionary and apostolic Pentecostal minister. Smiley grew up in the Kokomo, Indiana, area and attended Indiana University in Bloomington. He was a member of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity and graduated in 1986 with a degree in law and public policy. While he was at Indiana University, a close friend of Smiley's was killed by local police, who claimed to have done so in self-defense. This act of violence changed the course of Smiley's life, and he began to lead protests against the police in defense of his friend, which set Smiley on a path of social advocacy.

During Smiley s ...


Thomas Holzinger

, South African educator and social activist, was born in Durban, Natal, South Africa, on 3 December 1931. His mother was Cecile Marie-Louise van Rensburg née Lagesse, the daughter of an Afrikaner mother and a French planter; his father was Peter Maxwell, an English-speaking South African whose family forbade him to marry Cecile. The boy Patrick spent much of his childhood in Pietermaritzburg in the care of his grandmother, Susanna Marie Largesse née Louwrens Her family had been forced into a British concentration camp following the Boer War a story that she often told A Catholic by marriage she raised Patrick in the Catholic Church as well Communication at home was conducted in a mixture of English French Afrikaans and Zulu Although poverty prevented him from attending college he threw himself into correspondence courses and earned a BA from the University of South Africa UNISA As he frequently ...