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was born on 25 November 1891 in Havana. His paternal grandfather, Antonio Castellanos, a Cantonese farmer, arrived in Cuba during the second half of the nineteenth century to work with the Castellanos family in Güines. His maternal grandmother was Mexican, while both his mother, Gerónima Francisca González, and his father, Agustín Castellanos y Castellanos, a tinsmith, were Cuban-born. Therefore, due to his East Asian, Mexican, and Cuban-born roots, Castellanos could be considered a mestizo or mixed Cuban.

Castellanos received his elementary and secondary education at the Colegio Redentor (Redeemer College) and Academia de San Anacleto (San Anacleto Academy) in Havana. By the time he began high school, in May 1914, at Instituto número 1 (Institute number 1) in Havana, he already had an interest in criminology. It was in 1908 during his father s birthday party that a guest chronicled a criminal act and mentioned the theories of ...



Malaika B. Horne

Drug use predates recorded history. Some drugs have more approval than others. While alcohol and tobacco are far more addicting and carry more health risks than stimulants, they are legal and more socially acceptable. Neither alcohol nor tobacco is listed as a controlled substance, and both are readily available for purchase with certain age restrictions. The problem of driving under the influence of alcohol or while intoxicated has garnered increasing public disapproval and legal penalties due to vehicular accidents causing injuries and casualties. The alcohol industry subsequently mounted a “drink responsibly” campaign to mollify this growing concern. The recognition that nicotine use can lead to serious health problems, such as lung cancer and emphysema, led to warnings on products and public campaigns to discourage use. Although nicotine continues to be legal, it has declined in acceptance.

Prohibition of alcohol in 1919 under the Volstead Act brought unanticipated consequences of ...


Charles Rosenberg

described by William and Charles Mayo, the founders of the Mayo Clinic, as “the most able Negro surgeon in America” was murdered by a mob during the Tulsa, Oklahoma, riots of 1921. Jackson was born in Memphis, Tennessee, the son of Townsend (sometimes given as Talgris) and Sophronia Jackson, and grew up in Guthrie, Oklahoma. His middle name was either Christian or Chester.

Townsend Jackson, a police officer in Memphis, fled the city with his family as a mob targeted their home in 1889. Just in time for the Oklahoma land rush that year, he settled in Guthrie, where he was a justice of the peace, a barber, and a police officer. Townsend Jackson owned the family home. In 1900, Andrew Jackson and his older brother also named Townsend worked as porters while their older sister Minnie taught school The neighborhood where ...


Susan M. Reverby and Elizabeth Sims

farmer, civil rights activist, and lead plaintiff in the lawsuit against the government in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, was born in Notasulga, Alabama, the third child of six children of Lucius and Alma Pollard. The Pollard family owned and farmed their land in the Notasulga area, just outside of Tuskegee, for generations after the Civil War. As with many farmers, they often needed to secure liens, with their animals as the collateral, in order to complete their crop. In the early 1900s the family began to buy more acreage, and by 1908 Pollard s father was farming 160 acres and was the first black man in the county to own a mechanical cotton picker Pollard learned early how to horse and cattle trade and to build upon his family s farming skills He was educated in the Shiloh School one of the earliest Rosenwald schools built ...


Susan M. Reverby

farmer, mill worker, and the spokesman for the survivors of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study at the formal federal apology at the White House on 16 May 1997, was born in Tallassee, Alabama, the second of four children of Frank Shaw, a farmer. After his mother's death, Shaw's father moved the family to Plano, Texas, in search of a better life. Shaw excelled in his studies at the local segregated grammar schools, remembering always his lessons on the ancient world. When the farmland in Texas proved unyielding, Shaw returned to Tallassee and farming. The depression years proved difficult on the land, and Shaw was hired as the first black man to run a cord machine in a nearby textile mill. He would stay at the mill for forty-four years, while continuing to grow cotton, corn, and collard greens that were prized by his neighbors. He married Fannie ...


Boyd Childress

(b. 30 October 1895; d. 19 March 1960), physician. Grandson of an Alabama slave and himself a prominent Detroit physician, Ossian Sweet was unwillingly at the center of one of the nation's major racial trials of the twentieth century. Born and raised in rural Florida, Sweet graduated from Wilberforce University and Howard University Medical School. He opened a successful practice in Detroit in 1921 and married the next year. Sweet and his wife traveled to Europe, where Sweet studied in Vienna and then in Paris under Marie Curie. After the birth of their daughter, the Sweets returned to Detroit in 1924.

In 1925 Sweet purchased a home on Garland Avenue in one of Detroit s white lower middle class neighborhoods Racial tension in Detroit was already high and a neighborhood Waterworks Improvement Association was formed in July for the unveiled purpose of maintaining ...


Daniel Wein

physician, was born Ossian Haven Sweet in Orlando, Florida, the eldest of nine surviving children of Dora DeVaughn and Henry Sweet. In the summer of 1898 the Sweets bought a plot of land in the town of Bartow, approximately forty-five miles east of Tampa, where they ran a successful farm and lumberyard. Ossian attended Union Academy (Bartow's all-black public school) through the eighth grade. In September 1909, at the age of thirteen, he began preparatory work at Wilberforce University in Xenia, Ohio, the nation's first black college. He was initially awarded a scholarship, but it was rescinded due to lack of funds. Sweet did odd jobs around campus to help cover expenses. He started the college program in the fall of 1913 concentrating in the sciences with the goal of entering medical school Sweet earned his BS a general science degree that focused on biology chemistry ...