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Andrea Bennett

was born in Troy, New York. His mother, Mathilda Decker Kelley, was born in New York; his father Richard Kelley was an escaped slave from Virginia who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War.

Kelley studied at the Troy Military Academy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and finally the College of Civil Engineering at Cornell (1905–1908). At Cornell he and six others founded the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity in 1906 the first inter collegiate African American Greek fraternity in the United States He also contributed to the creation of the Alpha Phi Alpha handshake and ritual Kelley attributed his inspiration and drive for creating the fraternity to his father saying I saw my ancestors who had been in slavery my father who had escaped the despicable system and had gone back south as a soldier in the Union Army to help in subduing those who held him ...


Influential political activist and founder member of the Nigerian National Democratic Party. The son of distinguished African missionaries, Macaulay was educated at the Church Missionary Society grammar school founded by his father. After completing his education in 1881, he entered the civil service. In 1890 he travelled to England, where he became the first Nigerian to qualify as a civil engineer. On his return to Lagos, he was appointed as a surveyor but soon became dissatisfied with the system, which discriminated against African civil servants. In 1898 he left the civil service to go into private practice as a licensed surveyor and architect but his business never proved to be a success In financial difficulties Macaulay misappropriated funds and was sentenced to two years imprisonment effectively barring him from public office Nevertheless he grew to be an influential figure in Nigerian politics through his staunch editorials for the ...


Janine Richardson

engineer, tax expert, and U.S. State Department economic adviser to the Virgin Islands, Ecuador, Haiti, and Brazil, was born in a tent at Crow Creek Ranch, Cheyenne, in the Territory of Wyoming. Smith's mother, Melissa (Boulware) Smith, was the Missouri-born daughter of an African American mother and a Choctaw Indian father. Smith's father, Silas Peter Smith, was of Scottish-Irish parentage and had spent his early life in the trans-Mississippi West where he reputedly served as a scout for General George Armstrong Custer. Nolle pronounced in Choctaw fashion according to his mother Nulle was one of nine children raised principally on Smith owned ranches and dairy farms in the Cheyenne Chugwater and Casper regions of Wyoming Smith s parents had settled in the frontier zone of Wyoming with the hope that their mixed race children would there have a better chance of attaining the ...