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Richard Watts

Félix Éboué was born in Cayenne, French Guiana. A very bright child with a nearly photographic memory, he was at the head of his primary school class. He received a French government scholarship to attend high school in Bordeaux, France, where he met René Maran, a Martinican-born Négritude writer. Éboué’s passion for learning translated into a passion for politics, as the young man aligned himself with the Socialism of Jean Jaurès, publisher of the left-wing daily, l’Humanité. Éboué finished his secondary studies in 1905 and entered the French Colonial School in 1906 at a time when the colonial vocation was not considered incompatible with socialism.

After completing his studies in 1908, Éboué turned down a coveted position as colonial administrator in Madagascar to take a similar position in the French Congo where he thought he could do more to help the people of his race He immediately ...


Elizabeth Heath

A son of missionary parents, Frederick John Dealtry Lugard was born in Fort St. George, Madras, India. He was educated in England and trained briefly at the Royal Military College, which he left at the age of twenty-one to join the British army. While in the army, Lugard was posted to India and also served in Afghanistan, Sudan, and Burma (present-day Myanmar). In the late 1880s, however, Lugard left the army to fight slavery in East and Central Africa. In 1888 Lugard led his first expedition in Nyasaland (present-day Malawi) and was seriously injured in an attack on Arab slave traders. A year after he established the territorial claims of British settlers, in the hire of the British East African Company, Lugard explored the Kenyan interior. In 1890 he led an expedition to the Buganda kingdom in present day Uganda Lugard negotiated an end to the civil war in ...