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Jessica Falconi

Angolan anthropologist, writer, and political activist, was born Mário de Carvalho Moutinho in Lisbon on 29 September 1932. Portuguese by birth and Angolan by nationality, Henrique Abranches also used the pseudonyms “Mwene Kalungo” and “Mwene Kalungo-Lungo.” In 1947 he and his family left Portugal to settle in Luanda, where he attended the Liceu Salvador Correia, a pioneering institution of secondary education in Angola whose students included several names that were later important in Angolan literature. After five years in Luanda, Abranches moved to the city of Sá de Bandeira (now Lubango) in the Huíla Plateau in southern Angola, where he became interested in the customs and traditions of the people of the region. He returned briefly to Portugal, where he finished secondary school and attended the Society of Fine Arts. He returned to Lubango on his own and began working for the Bank of Angola. In 1952 he ...

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Angie Colón Mendinueta

was born on 8 November 1908 in San Casimiro, in the state of Aragua, Republic of Venezuela. He was the son of Miguel Acosta Delgado, a native of Maturín in the state of Mongas, and Adela Saignes Roulac, from the village of Saignes Roulac, of French origin. From childhood onward, Miguel received a good education, and he earned his bachelor’s degree in 1927. After graduation, he became a teacher in the Colegio San Pablo de Caracas (San Pablo de Caracas High School), where he had formerly been a student, and the vice principal of the Zamora School (also in Caracas).

In 1928 Acosta began medical school at the Universidad Central de Venezuela That same year along with several of his classmates he was arrested and taken to prison for his participation in student protests against the regime of the military dictator Juan Vicente Gómez They were taken to ...

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Marlene Attzs

was born in Trinidad and Tobago on 27 February 1934. He received his education at the Tacarigua Anglican School and Queen’s Royal College (Trinidad), Downing College (Cambridge University), and Mansfield College (Oxford University). Best launched the Tapia House Movement in 1968, was a founding member of the New World Group, and promoted Caribbean thought as publisher and managing editor of the Trinidad and Tobago Review, as well as through leadership in consultancies and institutes. Lloyd Best served regionally through the University of the West Indies (UWI).

In 1957 Best joined the Faculty of UWI in Mona, Jamaica, as a lecturer in economics and a fellow at the Institute of International Relations, and he remained in academic employment until 1976, when he resigned to contest the Trinidad and Tobago general elections of 1976 under the rubric of the Tapia House Movement THM a party Best had ...

Article

Stewart King

was born on 16 December 1753 in Torbec, on the southern peninsula of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti). His father, François Boisrond (1711–1772), a mixed-race small planter, married Marie Hérard (1724–1773), from a prominent free colored family from the nearby parish of Aquin, sometime before 1743. Louis François was the tenth of their eleven children. (Louis-François’s surname sometimes appears as Boisrond-Jeune. The cognomen “Jeune” means “the younger,” and it was commonly used to distinguish a person from an older relative with the same name. In this case, we do not know who the older Louis-François Boisrond was; perhaps there was an older brother who died in childhood, or perhaps the intent was to distinguish Louis-François from his father, François.)

François Boisrond, along with other free colored and white planters of the regions, participated in an uprising against obligatory militia service in 1763 he suffered no punishment ...

Article

Ruramisai Charumbira

Zimbabwean educator, political activist, member of parliament, cabinet minister, and the Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) politburo member, was born Victoria Fikile Mahamba-Sithole on 27 March 1928 in Natal South Africa, to an immigrant family from Manicaland, from then Southern Rhodesia. Young Victoria grew up in South Africa and got her secondary education from Adams College, Amanzimtoti, Natal, one of South Africa’s oldest secondary schools for black education. While at Adams College she met another student who would go on be her husband, an illustrious Zimbabwe (then Southern Rhodesian) nationalist named Herbert Wiltshire Tapfumanei Chitepo. Victoria Chitepo also earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Birmingham, England, and became a teacher and political activist in Natal until about 1955 when she joined her husband in Southern Rhodesia where he had just become the first African barrister From that time on Victoria s life like many wives of ...

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Molefi Kete Asante

major Senegalese scholar in the fields of anthropology, history, and physics, was born in the village of Keitou, Senegal, not far from the town of Diourbel in the interior of Senegal on 29 December 1923 By all accounts as a youth he was a serious student and an avid participant in the sports of the village Yet he was always searching to reach higher goals and when the opportunity came for him to study in Dakar and St Louis he quickly took the chance to prove himself He was an extraordinary student noticed by all of his classmates and teachers as someone who could make an enormous contribution to knowledge At an early age Diop had shown a keen mind an argumentative streak and an ability to make logical arguments Diop like most Senegalese children had to learn Islamic traditions as well as Western ones His ancestors and larger ...

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Dawne Y. Curry

In 1923, Cheikh Anta Diop one of the most famous theoreticians of the twentieth century was born in a small village in the West African country of Senegal As an anthropologist historian Egyptologist politician and author Diop devoted his scholarly life to understanding human evolution Diop believed that humankind originated in Egypt and he devoted his life to proving this hypothesis This idea was unthinkable at the time Widely held beliefs about European influence and contributions to society included racist stereotypes that colored perceptions of Africa s genesis Diop who matured during an age of European imperialism African independence movements and neo colonialism never wavered in his commitment to African people His articles and many books reflect this profound devotion In fact Diop s greatest contribution to scholarly endeavors lies in his tireless search for physiological and genetic evidence to support his thesis Using mummies bone measurements and ...

Article

Gerald Horne

American social scientist, author, educator, civil rights leader, and Pan-Africanist, was born William Edward Burghardt Du Bois on 23 February 1868 to Alfred Du Bois and Mary Silvina Burghardt Du Bois, in the predominantly white hamlet of Great Barrington, Massachusetts. William’s maternal great-great-grandfather, Tom Burghardt, born in West Africa in the early 1730s, was captured and brought to America by Dutch slavers. Du Bois would later recall hearing in his childhood a West African song that was perhaps of Senegambian Wolof origin.

Du Bois had a fondness for his New England birthplace and by his own account had a relatively charmed childhood An only child abandoned by his father whom he did not remember his doting mother and relatives and supportive teachers muted the pangs of racism sharpened by Reconstruction These heady years permeated the nation not just the South Hence his early years were shaped by genteel poverty Victorian ...

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Jody Benjamin

Having embraced a notion of transnational racial solidarity early in his career, W. E. B. Du Bois continued to elaborate and promote his ideas of “Pan-Africanism,” as both a scholar and a political activist, with increasing urgency throughout his life, culminating with his emigration from the United States to Ghana, where he died a few years after that country won its political independence from Great Britain.

The notion of “Negro race” as a conceptual and political unit has roots in Enlightenment-era views of race as an essential marker of human difference. It was also shaped by both the discourses of nineteenth-century movements to abolish slavery in the United States and those of nationalism in Europe. Du Bois was exposed to this thinking throughout his education, beginning at Fisk University in 1885, where some of his teachers had been abolitionists.

Continuing his education at Harvard University Du Bois was taught ...

Article

Leyla Keough

Bernie Grant was a controversial parliamentarian, more at home with grassroots organization and black radicalism than with establishment politics in the House of Commons. Described as “a leader walking the rope between street heroism and government office,” Grant defended his black constituents and articulated their views.

Grant grew up in Georgetown, the capital of Guyana, where he attended a Jesuit school. In 1963 he and his parents, Eric and Lily Grant, moved to Great Britain, where Bernie attended Tottenham Technical College and then studied mining engineering at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. He left the university because of racist policies that refused to admit blacks into a program of study in mining in South Africa. He worked as a railway clerk and a postal employee until he became a trade union official.

During the 1970s Grant led a campaign against the National Front a white supremacist organization active ...

Article

Richard Watts

Born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to upper-middle-class mixed-race parents, Roumain attended excellent schools in both Haiti and Europe, where he acquired remarkable language skills (he spoke English, German, and Spanish, in addition to French and Creole) and a profound understanding of European cultures. At a young age, he rejected his parents' cosmopolitanism, returning to Haiti from Paris in 1927 to help found La Revue Indigène. This journal, which was instrumental in the development of a specifically Haitian literary aesthetic rooted in traditional peasant life, published many of Roumain's early poems. Roumain wrote prodigiously and fearlessly during this period, publishing two collections of novellas in 1931 (La Proie et l'ombre and Les Fantoches) that denounced the greed of Haiti's ruling class.

In 1934 Roumain was elected secretary-general of the Haitian Communist Party, which he had helped establish. That same year, Haitian president Sténio Vincent alarmed by the forceful ...

Article

Kathleen Sheldon

political activist in Angola, and leader of the Organização Mulher Angolana (OMA; Angolan Women’s Organization), was born in the village of Bengo, just north of Luanda. Van-Dúnem has been involved in politics her entire life. Her father, Guilherme Pereira Inglês, was a Methodist minister who encouraged her education, and enrolled her in classes in Luanda when she was a child. He was tortured and killed by the Portuguese colonial regime in 1961. Her mother died soon after that, and Van-Dúnem left with her two older sisters and joined the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA; People’s Liberation Movement of Angola) when she was just thirteen years old; two younger brothers also accompanied them. She lost several family members during the armed struggle, including one sister who died in 1963 and one brother who was killed in 1968.

Van-Dúnem spent 1964 to 1967 in Kinshasa in the ...