San Martín, José Francisco de
- Florencia Guzmán
whose campaigns were decisive in the struggle for independence in Argentina, Chile, and Peru, was born on 25 February 1778 in Yapeyú, in the viceroyalty of Río de la Plata—today the province of Corrientes (Argentina)—the youngest of five siblings born to don Juan de San Martín and Gregoria Matorras, both of Spanish descent. In Argentina he is recognized as the “Padre de la Patria”(Father of the Nation) and the “libertador” (liberator), and is revered as the main hero and dignitary of the national pantheon. In Peru he is remembered as the “Fundador de la Libertad del Perú” (Founder of the Liberty of Peru), the “Fundador de la República” (Founder of the Republic), the “Generalísimo de las Armas” (Generalissimo of the Arms), and the “libertador” of the country. The Chilean army recognizes him as a captain general.
In 1783 when he was 4 years old San Martín traveled to Spain ...
A version of this article originally appeared in The Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography.