- John Milstead
caudillo and general during the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) was born in the small town of San Francisco in the modern state of Jalisco, Mexico, in 1789. He and his parents, Pedro de Santiago Guzmán and Estéfana de Jésus Cano, were labeled mulatos (people with European and African ancestry) by Spanish officials and local hacendados (hacienda owners). Spanish bureaucrats classified people in this manner during the colonial era (1521–1821) to separate people with European ancestry from their indigenous and Afro-Mexican counterparts. Such racial classifications formed the basis for three centuries of European domination.
Guzmán spent his formative years working as a laborer on various sugar haciendas in the Sayula District in southern Jalisco Sayula dominated the regional economy until the mid eighteenth century when the nearby city Zapotlán assumed economic predominance This was due to the large number of Creoles American born persons of ...
A version of this article originally appeared in The Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography.