FEATURE OF THE MONTH
Brown v. Board of Education
Each month, the editors of the Oxford African American Studies Center provide insights into black history and culture, showing ways in which the past and present interact by offering socially and historically relevant short articles, picture essays, and links that will guide the reader interested in knowing more. To mark the anniversary of the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in May the feature highlights the Court's landmark ruling and its role in bringing an end to segregation in America.
After the promise of Reconstruction faded into the discrimination of the Jim Crow era, African Americans at the turn of the century found themselves living in a country where they were acknowledged as citizens but permanently isolated into a disadvantaged underclass. The 1896 Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, which allowed separate railroad cars for blacks and whites in Louisiana provided that the facilities were "separate but equal," opened the door to legalized segregation in virtually all public places, most importantly in schools. However, African Americans' continual efforts to work against Jim Crow through litigation and associations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) eventually bore fruit in a series of cases that chipped away at the legality of segregation. Sweatt v. Painter (1950), which outlawed segregation in graduate education, and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950), which forced the state-sponsored University of Oklahoma to admit an African American student on an equal standing with his peers, both paved the way for a decision that would outlaw school segregation at all levels.
This came in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas, in which the court ruled that "separate education facilities are inherently unequal" and were in fact detrimental to the mental and emotional well-being of black children. This watershed decision heralded the end of segregation and became the foundation of the successful civil rights movement of the 1960s, but it did not magically solve the problems of racial equality in America. Black students attending newly integrated schools in the years after Brown faced discrimination, threats, and violence, while the reluctance of a number of schools to comply with the Court's ruling eventually forced a confrontation between southern states and the federal government. Moreover, although legalized segregation is now a thing of the past, in many communities today demographic shifts and economic inequalities have ensured that the color line remains all too real.View photo essay
The following articles have been selected to help guide readers who want to learn more about Brown v. Board of Education, school desegregation in general, and the individuals who helped make it possible. (Access to the following articles is available only to subscribers.)